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Full text of "Historic Furnishings Report: Lindenwald--Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, New York"

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Historic Furnishings Report 

MARTIN VAN BUREN 

LINDENWALD 

National Historic Site/New York 




federal 

PU3U ' 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historicfurnishiOOkoha 



HISTORIC FURNISHINGS REPORT 
for "LINDENWALD" 



MARTIN VAN BUREN NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE 
Kinderhook, New York 



by Carol E. Kohan 
Curator, Martin Van Buren National Historic Site 



U.S. Department of the Interior / National Park Service 

Harpers Ferry Center 

1986 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE /v 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS /vii 

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS /x 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS /xiii 

ADMINISTRATIVE DATA /l 

INTERPRETIVE OBJECTIVES /l 

OPERATING PLAN /4 
Visitor Use /4 
Visitor Circulation Plan /5 
Staffing Requirements /8 



HISTORICAL DATA /9 

ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL OCCUPANCY, 1839-1862 /9 
1839-1848 /9 
1849-1862 /21 
Footnotes /29 



EVIDENCE OF ROOM USE, 1841-1862 /33 
Introduction /33 

Room 005--Servants' Dining Room /34 
Room 006--Kitchen /35 
Room 007 — Washroom (Laundry Room) /36 
Room 101— Bedroom /38 
Room 102--Closet /39 
Room 103— Closet /39 
Room 104— Sitting Room /39 
Room 105 — Hall /40 
Room 106--Drawing Room or Parlor /43 
Room 107— Closet /45 

Room 108--Closet; Stairway from 109 to 005 /45 
Room 109— Dining Room or Breakfast Room /45 
Room 110 — Stairway /47 
Room 111— Library /47 
Room 112— Bedroom /52 



Rooms 113/117— Tower Stair Hall /54 

Rooms 114/115/116--Bathroom and Dressing Area; 

Water Closet; Small Hall /54 
Room 118— Nursery /56 
Room 119— Entrance Hall /57 
Room 120--Hallway /58 
Room 121— Privy /58 
Room 122— Closet /59 
Room 123--Bedroom /59 
Room 201— Bedroom /60 
Room 205--Bedroom /61 

Rooms 206/207/208— Upper Hall and Bedroom /62 
Room 209— Bedroom of Martin Van Buren /63 
Room 210--Bedroom of Martin Van Buren, Jr. /65 
Room 211--Passage /66 
Room ??? — Storeroom /67 
Room ???— Billiard Room /67 



EVIDENCE OF FURNISHINGS, 1841-1862 /68 
Introduction /68 
Footnotes /78 

General Furnishings References /81 

Furniture: Documentary References and Extant Pieces /91 

Summary of Furniture References /91 

Extant Furniture /92 

Summary of Extant Furniture Associated 
with Van Buren /93 

Beds /94 

Chairs /96 

Chests of Drawers/Commodes/Cupboards /1C5 

Mirrors /108 

Musical Instruments /111 

Secretaries/Bookcases/Desks /113 

Sideboards /116 

Sofas /120 

Tables/Stands /125 

Wardrobes /135 
Accessories /139 

Summary of Accessories References /139 

Extant Accessories /140 

Summary of Extant Accessories (pieces) /142 

Summary of Extant Accessories (patterns/sets) /143 

Books/Documents /143 

Ceramics /150 

Clocks /155 

Glassware /156 



11 



Lighting Devices /159 
Personal Accessories /162 
Pictures/Portraits /167 
Sculpture /182 
Silver /185 
Textiles /191 
Communication Devices /198 
Heating Devices /200 
Fireboards /203 
Housekeeping Accessories /206 
Plumbing Fixtures /208 
Porch and Garden Furniture /211 
Furniture of the President's House, c. 1837-39 /212 



RECOMMENDED FURNISHINGS /216 
Introduction /216 
Room 101--Bedroom /219 
Room 104--Sitting Room /222 
Room 105— Hall /228 
Room 106--Drawing Room or Parlor /234 
Room 109 — Dining Room or Breakfast Room /242 
Room 111— Library /248 
Room 112— Bedroom /252 
Rooms 114/115/116--Bathroom and Dressing Area; 

Water Closet; Hall /253 
Room 118— Nursery /255 
Room 119--Entrance Hall /256 
Room 201— Bedroom /256 
Room 205— Bedroom /257 

Rooms 206/207/208— Upper Hall and Bedroom /259 
Room 209— Bedroom of Martin Van Buren /261 
Room 210— Bedroom of Martin Van Buren, Jr. /268 
Rooms 005, 006, 007 — Basement Service Rooms /272 

Room 005— Servants' Dining Room /273 

Room 006— Kitchen /274 

Room 007— Washroom (Laundry Room) /276 
Rooms 102/103 and 107/108— Closets /277 
Room 110— Stairway /277 
Rooms 113/117— Tower Stair Hall /277 
Room 120— Hallway, 121Privy, 122Closet /277 
Room 123— Bedroom /277 

Rooms 202/203/204--Closets and 211Passage /277 
FLOOR PLANS AND ELEVATIONS /279 
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION RECOMMENDATIONS /308 



m 



MAINTENANCE RECOMMENDATIONS: OUTLINE FOR A HOUSEKEEPING PRO- 
GRAM; ANALYSIS OF SPACE; AND SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE /328 



ILLUSTRATIONS /335 



APPENDIXES /391 

Appendix A. Will of Martin Van Buren, 1860 /392 

Appendix B. Martin Van Buren Exhibition Catalog, 1936 /395 

Appendix C. Inventory of Martin Van Buren Furniture at Linden- 
wald, 1936 /397 

Appendix D. Description of Lindenwald and Van Buren Fur- 
nishings, 1938 /399 

Appendix E. Indenture and List of Law Books, George Caines -- 
Martin Van Buren, 1814 /402 

Appendix F. Inventory of Law Books in Van Buren Collection, Bar 
Association of the City of New York /410 

Appendix G. Children and Grandchildren of Martin Van Buren 
/414 

Appendix H. Chronology of Van Buren Family Members at Linden- 
wald /416 

Appendix I. Servants at Lindenwald with added reference to 
Patricia West's study, "The House Servants of Lindenwald" 
/418 

Appendix J. Partial List of Visitors to Lindenwald, 1841-62 
/421 

Appendix K. List of Owners of the Lindenwald Property /422 



BIBLIOGRAPHY /423 



IV 



PREFACE 



Various challenges were encountered in the preparation of the Historic 
Furnishings Report for Lindenwald. The task of researching Lindenwald's 
furnishings of the historic period 1841 to 1862 was complicated by the 
fact that in the 120 years that had passed since Martin Van Buren 
occupied the mansion, Lindenwald had changed from the dwelling of an 
ex-President to a middle-class farmhouse, and further to a tea room, a 
nursing home, and an antiques shop, before its establishment as a 
National Historic Site. With these changes in ownership and living 
patterns, it was inevitable that the original Van Buren furnishings 
would be dispersed. Yet, fortunately, many furnishings remained in the 
mansion, in the community, or in the hands of Van Buren descendents. 

Because the last private owner of the house was an antiques dealer, 
there has been some confusion concerning which pieces left in Lindenwald 
were associated with Van Buren and which pieces were the dealer's stock. 
Corroboration of Lindenwald provenance by previous owners helped to 
identify some of the furnishings; however, some of the questions may 
never be resolved. 

Another challenge in writing the report was that some physical evidence 
relating to the structure was inadequate, confusing, or contradictory. 
When the Historic Furnishings Report was being written, the Historic 
Structure Report existed only in draft, and many of its findings were 
being questioned. The Historic Furnishings Report relied upon the 
Historic Structure Report, prepared by the Denver Service Center, 
supplemented by the results of further investigations by the North 
Atlantic Historic Preservation Center. 

A further difficulty was that documentary evidence for Lindenwald fur- 
nishings c. 1841-1862 was scant. Van Buren's was prolific in his corre- 
spondence, however, it was largely political in nature. There were no 



photographs of Lindenwald's interior from the historic period, no diary 
descriptions of the placement or use of furnishings, no extant inven- 
tories of the mansion prior to or at the time of Van Buren's death. 
Nevertheless, careful gleaning of the correspondence of Van Buren and 
his family yielded important information. 

Perhaps the greatest challenge in writing the Historic Furnishings 
Report, particularly the Recommended Furnishings Section, was facing the 
philosophical dilemma imposed by National Park Service furnishing 
policies. One goal of the restoration of Lindenwald was to interpret 
accurately and convincingly, the life and lifestyle of Martin Van Buren 
in retirement. On the other hand, the restoration had to be carried out 
with "minimum conjecture." 

The first draft of the report attempted a compromise by recommending 
reproduction or period objects only when their absence would be 
misleading. Following regional review, however, the narrowest interpre- 
tation of the furnishings policy was applied and selective refurnishing 
with objects documented only by period practice was eliminated from the 
final manuscript. Many of the park staff believe that the interpreta- 
tion selected for Lindenwald diminishes and perhaps impoverishes the 
rich potential for the site for visitor understanding of park themes. 

To say the documentation and recommendations contained herein are "site- 
specific" rather than "period-general" is to oversimplify the philoso- 
phical issues involved, and controversy may well continue over what 
furnishings are appropriate for a quality interpretation. But, publi- 
cation of chis document and the restoration of Lindenwald must proceed. 

Let the reader understand that an enormous wealth of documentation for 
mid-nineteenth century period practices does exist, while at Lindenwald, 
for the foreseeable future, interpreters rather than furnishings will 
bear the burden of placing Van Buren in the context of his time. 



VI 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

As Curator for Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, I have had 
the unique opportunity over the last five years to research and write 
Lindenwald's Historic Furnishings Report and I would like to acknow- 
ledge those who have directly or indirectly assisted in its prepara- 
tion. 

As this report depended in large measure on an analysis of extant 
Van Buren associated furnishings, great appreciation must be extended 
to the Hyde Park Historical Association and the National Park Founda- 
tion for providing funds for the acquisition of a large collection of 
important Lindenwald furnishings soon after the National Park Service 
acquired the mansion a decade ago. I am likewise indebted to the 
more than fifty individual donors and groups who have since that time 
made vital contributions to the restoration and refurnishing of 
Lindenwald. 

Next, I am grateful to former MAVA staff members, Historian William 
Jackson, Curator Mary Smith, and Museum Technician Christopher 
Merritt, for gathering preliminary oral history and research data, 
locating original furnishings, and initiating the museum records 
system. Their pioneering efforts were essential to the execution of 
this report and they are to be commended for their dedicated work. 
In addition, Jody Yearous Ullmann, Museum Technician from March 1982 
to December 1983, was a most able and enthusiastic assistant in docu- 
menting and maintaining the museum collection and in preparing for 
the Site's "Bicentennial Preview," which served as a trial run for 
furnishings placement in several rooms. 



vn 



The many individuals and organization that provided access to Van 
Buren associated objects and correspondence during the course of my 
research deserve special thanks. Foremost among them are Mrs. 
William (Fletch) Coke, Research Chairman of the Ladies' Hermitage 
Association, White House Associate Curator Betty C. Monkman, and Dr. 
George W. Franz, editor of the Martin Van Buren Papers Project at 
Pennsylvania State University. 

A number of people now or formerly from the Kinderhook community were 
also instrumental in providing research material. Particularly note- 
worthy are Clementine deProsse, Jeanne Akers, and William deProsse, 
Jr., former occupants of Lindenwald, who shared many valuable recol- 
lections about the mansion from 1917 to 1957, and played a key role 
in identifying original furnishings. 

Ruth Piwonka, former Executive Director of the Columbia County His- 
torical Society, was especially helpful in locating Van Buren descen- 
dants and she was responsible for the return of various Van Buren- 
associated objects to Lindenwald. Gary Holloway, founder of the San 
Francisco-based Martin Van Buren Fan Club, cheerful ly discovered Van 
Buren family members and furnishings on the west coast. 

The Friends of Lindenwald, dedicated to the preservation and inter- 
pretation of the eighth President's home, have also played a part in 
pursuing appropriate furnishings and will continue to lend assistance 
in implementing the Historic Furnishings Report. 

Thanks are owed Sarah Olson, Chief of the National Park Service's 
Division of Historic Furnishings at Harpers Ferry Center, Staff Cura- 
tor David Wallace for his painstaking editing of the draft manuscript, 
and Tracey Rissler for final typing. 



vn i 



Finally, I would like to thank the staff of Martin Van Buren National 
Historic Site, under Superintendent Bruce W. Stewart, for their in- 
terest, comments, and assistance. In particular, credit is due Park 
Ranger Linda Mazur, who provided the photographs for reproduction in 
the report, and Museum Technician Patrica West, who has not only 
continued in the fine tradition of her predecessors, but has also 
acted as my sounding board and lent much-needed moral support and 
encouragement. 



IX 



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 
Pe opl e 

AJ Andrew Jackson 

AJD Andrew Jackson Donelson 

ASVB Angelica Singleton Van Buren 

AVB Abraham Van Buren 

BFB Benjamin F. Butler 

FPB Francis P. Blair 

GB George Bancroft 

GW Gorham Worth 

HB Harriet Butler 

HDG Henry D. Gilpin 

JAH James A. Hamilton 

JKP James K. Paulding 

JVB John Van Buren 

MVB Martin Van Buren 

MVB JR Martin Van Buren Junior 

Mrs. RS Mrs. Richard Singleton, Angelica's mother 

RU Richard Upjohn 

SJT Samuel J. Til den 

STVB Smith Thompson Van Buren 



Places 



A 


Albany 


CS 


Clifton Springs 


H 


Hudson 


Hm 


Hermitage 



K 


Kinderhook 


L 


Lindenwald 


NY 


New York 


P 


Philadelphia 


SC 


South Carolina 


SS 


Silver Springs 


W 


Washington, D.C 



R epositories/Collections 

CCHS Columbia County Historical Society 

CGCC Columbia-Green Community College 

HSP Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

LC Library of Congress 

LC-VB Library of Congress—Martin Van Buren Papers 

LC-ASVB Library of Congress—Angelica S. Van Buren Papers 

MAVA Martin Van Buren National Historic Site 

MHS Massachusetts Historical Society 

MORR Morristown National Historical Park 

NYBA Bar Association of the City of New York 

NYHS New York Historical Society 

NYPL New York Public Library 

NYSL New York State Library 

PML Pierpont Morgan Library 

PSC-Hi Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College 

PSU-ADH Pennsylvania State University, Alexander D. Harvey Papers 

UVa University of Virginia 

WHS Wisconsin Historical Society 



XI 



Mi seel laneous 

HFR-CEK Historic Furnishings Report--Carol E. Kohan 

HPHA Hyde Park Historical Association 

HRS Historic Resource Study 

HSR Historic Structure Report 

HSR-FS Historic Structure Report—Finishes Study 

NAHPC North Atlantic Historic Preservation Center 

NPF National Park Foundation 

NPS National Park Service 



XI 1 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

COVER. Watercolor of Lindenwald, c. 1849-50, by Richard Upjohn 

1. Downstairs bedroom (Room 101), 1930s 

2. Downstairs bedroom (101), 1930s 

3. Sitting room (Room 104), 1930s 

4. Sitting room (104), 1930s 

5. Sitting room (104), 1930s 

6. Hall (Room 105), c. 1917 

7. Hall (105), c. 1929 

8. Hall (105), 1930s 

9. Hall (105), 1930s 

10. Drawing room (Room 106), 1930s 

11. Drawing room (106), 1930s 

12. Drawing room (106), 1930s 

13. Drawing room (106), 1930s 

14. Drawing room (106), 1930s 

15. Drawing room (106), 1936 

16. Library (Room 111), 1930s 

17. Van Buren bathtub, c. 1974 

18. Van Buren range and oven (Room 006), c. 1974 

19. Van Buren dining table 

20. Anti-Van Buren cartoon: "The Fox Chace," 1840 

21. Martin Van Buren, by G.P.A. Healy, 1858 

22. Angelica Singleton Van Buren, by Henry Inman, 1842 

23. Boynton's Patent Furnace (Room 001), c. 1974 

24. Furnace door (001), c. 1974 

25. Front view of Lindenwald, 1890s, with lawn furniture and urn 

26. Front porch, 1890s, with "ironwood" chairs 

27. Cast iron settee, Lindenwald, c. 1930 



mil 



ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 

INTERPRETIVE OBJECTIVES 

Martin Van Buren National Historic Site was established by Act of 
Congress, Public Law 93-486, signed into law by President Gerald P. 
Ford on October 26, 1974. The bills introduced in the Senate and 
House of Representatives the previous April called for the establish- 
ment of the site "for the purposes of preserving for the education 
and inspiration of present and future generations the former resi- 
dence (from 1841 until 1862) and only remaining structure intimately 
associated with Martin Van Buren, eighth President of the United 
States." 

The primary interpretive goal of the preservation and restoration of 
Lindenwald, is, it follows, to show something of ex-President Van 
Buren's life and lifestyle during his retirement at the Kinderhook 
estate, 1841-1862. Many of Van Buren's activities and interests will 
be reflected in the furnishings, along with some hints of his person- 
al and political outlook. The historical resources of the site pro- 
vide significant data for these interpretive messages. 

Van Buren acquired the Lindenwald mansion and estate in 1839 while he 
was at the height of his political career, and although he returned 
to Kinderhook two years later in political defeat, the property he 
had acquired represents the culmination of his personal and financial 
success. 

Lindenwald provides an excellent opportunity to explore and interpret 
the many roles Van Buren played: dignified and cosmopolitan ex-presi- 
dent, astute political thinker and writer, respected and affectionate 
patriarch, loyal friend and genial host, Kinderhook native son, proud 
homeowner, and competitive farmer, to name a few. 



Since Van Buren's political career was virtually over by the time he 
occupied Lindenwald, the story of Van Buren's many public offices and 
contributions to the American political system should be addressed 
before visitors enter the mansion. Of course, even in retirement, 
politics remained an integral part of Van Buren's life and the visi- 
tors will be reminded of that aspect through furnishings such as his 
large collection of law books and political documents, portraits of 
political contemporaries, and political cartoons featuring himself. 

The original Lindenwald and Van Buren-associated furnishings are the 
highlight of the restoration and make strong statements about the 
ex-president's taste and lifestyle, which was fashionable yet frugal. 
Although it is impossible to re-create the interior of the mansion 
exactly as Van Buren knew it, documentary and physical evidence and 
extant furnishings do give many clues to how Van Buren lived. It is 
important that the restored Lindenwald will not just another period 
house; it should distinctly reflect Van Buren the man and what he 
achieved. 

The furnishing and interpretation of Lindenwald must establish a bal- 
ance between two ideas: first, Martin Van Buren as a unique individ- 
ual, the former Chief Executive, an important figure in American his- 
tory; and second, Martin Van Buren as part of the nineteenth-century 
American culture in which he lived. Above all, Martin Van Buren must 
be interpreted as a multi-dimensional human being, not just a "polit- 
ical animal." 

Within the context of Lindenwald, numerous questions can be raised 
about Van Buren's life and lifestyle. How did he occupy himself dur- 
ing the twenty-one years of his retirement? What were the vestiges 
of his early legal and political careers, and what political influ- 
ence did Van Buren continue to exert from Lindenwald? How did he 
feel about his Dutch heritage and to what extent did his rural roots 



in Kinderhook influence his penchant for agricultural pursuits in his 
later life? How did Van Buren treat his family, neighbors, and ser- 
vants, and how did they regard him? What were his attitudes towards 
health and religion, having experienced the loss of a young wife, 
infant son, two daughters-in-law, several infant grandchildren, a 
grown son, and a number of close friends? 

Lindenwald was not a static household, except occasionally when Van 
Buren wintered in New York or traveled. It was a house filled with 
family and guests, distinguished men and small grandchildren, and 
workmen and servants. Entertainments included the formal dinner 
party and after-dinner game of whist. Riding, fishing, hunting, and 
ice skating were other frequent activities. Van Buren' s December 5 
birthday was celebrated, toasts were drunk on the Fourth of July, and 
Van Buren was host to his son John's "large and uproarious wedding 
party." Sometimes there was so much activity that chaos seemed to 
reign, and the turnover of servants was constant. All of this is 
part of the story to be interpreted. 

The period of interpretation is 1841-1862, in order to encompass the 
whole term of Van Buren's retirement, although the historic structure 
itself will be restored to the period 1849-1862, to preserve the 
striking architectural features designed by Richard Upjohn. Inter- 
pretation should provide visitors with an understanding of Van 
Buren's pride of ownership, and his preoccupation with alterations 
and improvements to the house, grounds, and farm, as well as an 
understanding of the architectural evolution of Lindenwald. 

Whatever other interpretive themes may develop, the ultimate goal of 
the restoration, furnishing, and interpretation of Lindenwald should 
be that, as Gideon Welles expressed in 1843, "the whole place and its 
appearance honor the man and the station he once held." 



OPERATING PLAN 

Visitor Use 

The house will be open seven days a week, nine months of the year. 
Visitors will be admitted to the house by park interpretive staff via 
the west door and hall (120) and will view the house on a guided-tour 
basis. Because of the weight-bearing capacity of the floors and nar- 
row passageways, tours will be limited to 15 persons. There are a 
number of possible tour routes and flexibility should be maintained 
in developing the interpretive program; however, the following route 
is recommended. 

The interpreter will provide orientation to the house in the hallway 
(119), and then the tour will proceed into the fully furnished 1797 
portion of the house (rooms 105, 101, 104, 106, 109, 111). The tour 
will continue into the 1850 addition, where visitors will see the 
Dedroom (112), bathroom (114-116), and nursery (118), before going 
upstairs via stairhall 110. After viewing the upstairs rooms (210, 
209, 206-208, 205, 201), visitors will return downstairs, retracing 
their steps. Depending upon the interests of the group, the tour may 
continue downstairs to the basement from hall 113, to view rooms 005, 
006, and 007. Visitors may then exit the house from room 009. 

The recommended tour route does not include the third floor servants' 
quarters due to safety considerations and incomplete documentation; 
however, interpreting and/or furnishing one or two rooms might be 
considered for "Living History" or other interpretive programs. 

Station interpretation may be considered when visitation is heavy if 
there is sufficient staff to provide security. Custom-made wooden 
stanchions will outline the visitor path throughout the house and 
will provide barriers rooms with minimum distraction. 




Rooms 
114/115/116 



Visitor circulation plan 
First Floor 



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nr 



T f 



Room 205 



I 



Rooms 
206/207/208 



1 
1 



H 




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Room 209 

f^ S=r 



1 
1 



A 



Visitor circulation plan 
Second Floor 



L 1 ' JSL 

u~- - t — u — i_r — 



=1 T- 




Room 005 



T-rnu 



-P — a 






P 



b 



J 



H 



H 



A 



Visitor circulation plan 
Basement 



Staffing Requirements 

Minimum staff to furnish, maintain, and interpret the house include 

Curator GS-9, Full -Time 

Supervisory Park Ranger GS-9, Full -Time 

Museum Technician GS-5, Full -Time 

Museum Aid GS-4, Part-Time 

Park Ranger GS-5, Full -Time 

Maintenance Worker WG-9, Full -Time 

Laborers (2) WG-1/2/3, Full-Time 

Park Technician GS-4, Subject to Furlough 

Park Technicians (3-5) GS-3/4, Seasonal 



HISTORICAL DATA 

ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL OCCUPANCY, 1839-1862 

Lindenwald served as the home of the eighth President, Martin Van 
Buren, for twenty-one years after he retired from the nation's high- 
est public office. Located two miles southeast of Kinderhook, in 
rural Columbia County, New York, Lindenwald was in the Dutch commun- 
ity where Van Buren had been born and raised. 

The history of the structure's architectural developments is ade- 
quately dealt with in the Historic Structure Report (Howell, 1985) 
and similarly, the history of Lindenwald 's occupants prior to and 
following Van Buren's ownership is covered in the Historic Resource 
Study (Piatt, 1982). This analysis of historical occupancy concerns 
the Van Buren years and is divided into two phases, 1839-1848 and 
1849-1862. 

1839-1848 

The first phase began when Martin Van Buren purchased the old Van 
Ness estate; the deed was recorded on April 1, 1839. The federal- 
style brick mansion, originally called "Kleinood" (Dutch for jewel, 
gem, or trinket) by Judge Peter Van Ness, was, as reported in the New 
York Commercial Advertiser , "a plain, substantial, commodious house, 
built in the year 1797, of the best materials, and with more regard 
to comfort than show." 

Van Buren, a friend of the Judge's son William, had visited Kleinood 
as a young man and the following passage from Van Buren's autobio- 
graphy suggests that the acquisition and maintenance of the estate 
had some nostalgic significance for him: 



As I approached the porch of the house... I perceived 
that the lower half of the old-fashioned front door 
which was divided through the middle (a style great- 
ly favored by our Dutch ancestors) was closed, and 
the upper open, at which the Judge was seated close 
to and with his back against the lower door, for the 
benefit of the light, reading a newspaper. Hearing 
my steps he looked around and perceiving me, in- 
stantly resumed his reading in a manner which pre- 
cluded me from addressing him. The door for expla- 
nation, as well as that for entrance, being thus 
closed upon me, and not feeling disposed to retreat, 
I seized the knocker which was hanging near his 
head, and gave it a somewhat emphasized rap, and as 
I did so I saw a smile upon his countenance of which 
my position afforded me a profile view. His son 
answered the summons immediately, spoke to his fa- 
ther, (who passed into the drawing room without 
looking behind him) and opened the door for me.... We 
passed thro' the Hall, and, as we left the house by 
the back door, he apologized to me for having for- 
gotten the relations between his father and myself 
The Judge died in the succeeding month of Decem- 
ber, possessed of considerable wealth. The estate 
on which he had long resided, and on which he was 
buried, was originally settled by a family who were 
relations of my father. It was sold at the close of 
the Revolutionary War to pay the debts of the then 
head of the family, and purchased by the Judge. He 
devised it to his son William, in whose hands it 
went thro' a similar process, and was purchased by 
one of his creditors who sold it to me. In the many 
alterations and improvements I have made in the 
house I have preserved the old double-door, and its 
knocker, as interesting memorials of my last inter- 
view with its original owner. 



A few months after having purchased the 130-acre estate for $14,000, 
President Van Buren and his sons John and Smith Thompson undertook a 
five-week journey from Washington, D.C., to Saratoga Springs, visit- 
ing friends and relatives and "politicking." "Old Kinderhook" was 
included in the itinerary and the first account of Kleinood under the 
Van Buren regime is found in a letter from Smith to his sister-in-law 



10 



Angelica, wife of his older brother Abraham, then a major in the U.S, 

3 
Army. Smith somewhat disdainfully confessed: 

We were agreeably disappointed at finding the House 
so good a one & the grounds in such good condition. 
I am afraid, however, that our venerable Chief Mag- 
istrate has not sufficient taste to make much of 
them. This is high treason & you must not betray me 
but he goes about with a little paper making notes 
of all sorts of what he calls improvements which 
strike me as any thing else; and taking the advice 
of two estimable Uncles of Mine, who are first rate 
farmers, but who for their sins, have never been 
taught the difference between the Doric & the Ionic 
Orders and who have the genuine American antipathy 
to the useless occupation of fat land by old trees, 
which they consider capital timbers for other pur- 
poses. 



Smith continued: "John does not take it, as much to heart, however, 

as I do. He thinks we shall never live there & during our dinner was 

constantly saying to us — 'Eat away, good people; this is the last 

4 
dinner you ever get here!"' 

John's prophecy was not realized. Van Buren was defeated in his bid 

for reelection in 1840 and, in the spring of 1841, returned to Kin- 

5 
derhook to spend the "last and happiest years" of his life. 

It is not clear when the name "Lindenwald" was chosen for the man- 
sion, although "Kleinood" was almost immediately discarded as "inap- 
plicable and unintelligible." "The Locusts" was considered appro- 
priate; however, that name was rejected because it had been used in 
James Fenimore Cooper's novel, The Spy . It is in a letter from 
Angelica to her mother, Mrs. Richard Singleton, on November 1, 1840, 
that "Lindenwald" first appears: "I saw all the Major's kinsfolk who 
were very kind & pleased me very much. We paid several visits of 
direction & inspection to Lindenwald & I hope we will hurry the move- 

o 

ments of the workmen a little." 



11 



Thus, even prior to the election of 1840, and in the face of any out- 
come, preparations were underway to improve the estate, for as Angel- 
ica wrote: "in any event, the family will be there for a time next 

g 
summer. " 



Angelica, charged with the responsibility of securing provisions, 
wrote her mother in South Carolina for assistance: 

First I want you to send me a list of supplies such 
as you usually send to Charleston in the Fall when 
the house is out of everything— I want it as a guide 
in ordering groceries etc. for Lindenwald & I have 
but an imperfect idea of the quantities of sugar 
etc. especially for six months' consumption with a 
regular family of four & I fear a great deal of 
strange company stopping by all .through the summer 
en route to Saratoga etc. & to see the President & 
Smith & John & various other friends on long visits. 
Then I want to get you to have your Recipe book 
copied in full & all your little stray recipes which 
you know to be good. 



Serving as the White House hostess for the widower President, Angeli- 
ca would also be the most significant female presence at Lindenwald 
for the next several years, responsible for putting the house in 
order. When she was not present, Lindenwald was likely to suffer 
from "Bachelor missrule." 

The next summer was indeed busy for Van Buren and his family. In 
June 1841, within two weeks of Van Buren's moving into the house, 
Lindenwald overflowed with guests as they celebrated the marriage of 
John Van Buren to Elizabeth Vanderpoel. Shortly thereafter Abraham, 
Angelica, and their new son, the ex-President's first surviving 
grandchild, arrived. Smith and Martin Van Buren, Jr., were also in 
residence. 



12 



Even with all the company, Van Buren declared his house was in "per- 
fect order" in September when the future Governor Silas and Mrs. 

12 
Wright spent a day with him. 



The following February, Van Buren began his "Southwestern" tour, 
stopping in South Carolina to visit the Singletons, Angelica's fam- 
ily, and continuing on to see his old friend Andrew Jackson at The 
Hermitage in Tennessee and his old political adversary, yet still 
friend, Henry Clay, at his Kentucky home, Ashland. He was greeted 

everywhere most cordially, as this excerpt from a Nashville newspaper 

. 13 
suggests: 

On Friday about eleven o'clock Mr. Van Buren visited 

the Nashville Female Academy He found the pathway 

from the outer gate to the hall-door strewn with 
flowers of many varieties. . .the young ladies with 
large bouquets in their hands arrayed on either side 
of the aisle that leads to the rear where the trust- 
ees were seated, at once made a most magnificent 
carpet of flowers upon which he advanced and was in- 
troduced to the trustees The classes from first 

to last were then presented, when Miss Smith 
pronounced a neat salutary address and placed a 
crown of flowers upon his head, which he took off 
and affixed to his left breast. The little ladies 
thronged around him, literally loading him with the 
choicest flowers of the season, as intimate, 
apparently, as if they had always known him 
personally. A scene like this --about two hundred 
young girls dressed like so many May-queens, all 
life and gayety--is best appreciated by those who 
witnessed it. 



By the time Van Buren returned to Kinderhook in July, Smith, his 
youngest son, had married Ellen King James and was living in Albany, 
and John's wife Elizabeth had given birth to a daughter in Albany as 
well . 



13 



For the next several months, the house was again filled with company. 
Richard B. Gooch, visiting from Virginia in September, reported to 
his mother: 

I sent the information of my arrival to Mr. V.B., 
and the next morning, before I was up, Major & John 
Van Buren were at the tavern for me. I went over 
and spent the morning with Smith, Martin, one of the 
Mrs. V.B.'s and Jonathan Kent of N.Y. worth one mil- 
lion. The President and the rest of them had gone 
fishing but returned about 3k with a fine bunch of 
fish, of which Mr. V.B. caught 7. Also in company 
Dr. Bethune, a fat jovial wine loving Democratic 
Clergyman from Philadel, and J.L. Steven, well 
known. At 6, we sat down to dinner and remained at 
table till 9--three Mrs. V.B.'s present, cheerful 
and happy. We retired h past 1 but had to be off by 
h past 7 this morning. Mr. VB is growing fat. His 
route in the tour was marked out in pen on a map — 
7000 miles. Shook hands with 200,000 persons. 

In October 1842, Van Buren wrote to his friend of long-standing, Ben- 
jamin F. Butler, that a "tasty cottage" was to be built for Abraham 

and Angelica on the Stuyvesant property Van Buren had given the 

15 
major. In the meantime, the son and daughter-in-law stayed at Lin- 

denwald where they were visited by Angelica's parents. Van Buren 

remained at Lindenwald "confined by company" except for a month's 

visit to Smith in Albany in December. 



If the major's cottage was ever completed, there is no indication 
that he and his wife occupied it, for Angel ica's correspondence dur- 
ing 1843 and following years was written from Lindenwald when she was 
in the area. Perhaps Angelica's health dictated more than the com- 
forts of a cottage, since she was at Lindenwald during the birth and 
death of a premature baby in July 1843, and she suffered ill-health 
for months both before and after the delivery. This was the second 
child Angelica had lost--her little Rebecca had been buried in Wash- 



14 



ington, D.C., three years earlier. Thankfully, two-year-old Single- 
ton was healthy and growing quite "clever in talking." 



Although Angelica was not fully recovered, the steady stream of visi- 
tors continued to flow at Lindenwald and her stepriece Mary MacDuffie 
("Mary Mac") was on hand to undertake Angelica's hostess duties. An- 
gelica noted: "It amuses me to hear that the EX takes her for his 
partner (at cards) frequently & still more surprising to hear never 
scolds." 17 

A September visit to the Charlestown Navy Yard and the Nahant resort 
near Boston for sea bathing was credited with improving Angelica's 
health. When she returned to Lindenwald, she had regained consider- 
able strength and wrote: "I am able to resume my usual habits except 

18 
that I travel upstairs as little as possible." 



Angelica was again in full command as hostess when Gideon Welles paid 

19 
a visit in October: 

It was about 9 as entering the gate we drove up a 
circular drive through the lawn to the Mansion of 

the Ex President He received me very cordially & 

introduced me to his two sons Abraham & Smith & to 

Mrs. A.V.B.--also to Judge Richardson Breakfast 

was on the table, and I was compelled to sit with 
them although I had breakfasted three hours before. 
Mrs. A.V. Buren sat at the head of the table, and I 
was seated at her right--the Ex-President sat oppo- 
site to her A Judge R. was at his right. 



In November, Angelica was catching up on her visiting calls, accumu- 
lated sewing, and reading while the major went off to New York in 
search of a replacement for an impertinent and intemperate, though 
accomplished, dining room servant. On December 6, Angelica wrote her 
mother that she and the family "still persevere in our walks — some- 



15 



times in snow storms coming in encrusted with snow from head to 

20 
foot. " She continued: 



We have for us been quite dissipated of late — yes- 
terday was Poppie's birthday & he wanted his Brother 
& Dr. Beekman to dine with him. We had a capital 
dinner to which one of your hams contributed; oyster 
soup, turkey etc., a game of six penny Loo... the Ex 
on his birthnight told of his success in the politi- 
cal contest before him & then 4 games of whist of 
which the Dr. & I won three. 



The mention of the "political contest" is one of few references in 

Angelica's correspondence to political topics. Her interest was 

quite casual in that regard and her attention was focused on family 
and household details. 

After a fierce in-party struggle, Van Buren was passed over for the 
Democratic presidential nomination in 1844 in favor of James K. Polk 
and life continued as usual at Lindenwald. The family increased with 
the addition of Smith and Ellen's first child, Ellen James, and the 
Major and Angelica's second son, Martin Van Buren III. 

Tragedy struck in November when John's wife died. Elizabeth had not 
Deen well, particularly since the death of her father, Judge James 
Vanderpoel, a year earlier, and a trip to the warm climate of Madeira 
had failed to cure her. Even so, the news was unexpected. The major 

wrote his father from Philadelphia: "What a shocking announcement 

21 
from Albany. Poor John must have been sorely afflicted." 

Perhaps, as his father had done following the loss of his own wife 
some twenty-five years earlier, John sought solace in his legal and 
political career. In 1845, the Barnburner faction of the Democratic 
Party nominated him for the office of New York State Attorney General 



16 



and he was duly elected by the legislature. He served until the 
state constitution was changed in 1846, and he eventually moved with 
his only child, Anna, to New York where he continued to practice law. 

The elder Van Buren continued to improve and add to his property and 
by 1845, he owned 220 acres of farmland, orchards, gardens, and fish 
ponds. In April, William G. Bryan, a law clerk from the western part 
of the state, visited the ex-President at the insistence of Governor 
Silas Wright and recorded some details of Van Buren's lifestyle and 
personality in a letter to fellow Democrat, Lyman C. Draper: 22 

My visit being one of mere personal respect, you 
might reasonably suppose that I was handsomely 
treated. Although on my guard against the reported 
fascination of the "Magician of Kinderhook" I was 
forced to confess its charm and potency. He has a 
noble residence, situated some distance from the 
road, and fronted by one of the most beautiful lawns 
I ever saw. This lawn that looked so fresh & 
smoothly shaven is dotted with rare old trees of 
every variety, & at the left of the house, which is 
a spacious brick one, painted white, is a fine clump 
of Southern Pines. Mr. V.B. told me he was very 
fond of reposing under them & hearing the wind sigh 
& moan through their peculiar branches. He does not 
allow the birds to be molested & they repay him in 
grateful songs. He has a capital garden, & conser- 
vatory, and a couple of artificial ponds, very neat 
to the eye, & well -stocked with fish. 

Bryan continued: 

At about four P.M. we dined— "faring sumptuously" 
and I left for the eve. boat at about H past 

five I can't describe what I mean by his 

fascination , but it is quality which he alone, 
possesses, among all the public men that I have yet 
seen, & which makes his friendship so peculiarly 
gratifying & flattering. It is something that 
belongs to him, alone, which shows you that his 
favors & smiles are rarely 



17 



& cautiously bestowed and which makes you desirous 
of being the favored one.... I believe him to be one 
of the most pure, honest & conscientious statesmen, 
we have ever seen.... He speaks of himself with con- 
siderable frankness, — & remarked to me that "he was 
surfeited with office," & was fortunate in "a tem- 
perament that enabled him to appreciate & to be 
gratified with leisure & retirement." 



In the summer of 1845, Lindenwald reverberated with "little shrieks 
of delight" as Angelica and Abraham's seven-month-old baby, named 
for his grandfather, was shown the animals of the hall wallpaper. By 

then, Singleton was old enough to accompany his mother and father on 

24 
a fishing excursion to the nearby creek. Smith visited Lindenwald 

in August along with his wife, child, and nurse, while their Albany 

home was undergoing repairs. Also included in the party were James 

25 

K. and Willie Paulding and Gouverneur Kemble. 



Although the major and his family spent the following winter in New 
York, Van Buren wrote his good friend, Francis P. Blair, that he and 
Martin Jr., "alone in our glory," would "keep the flag flying at Lin- 
denwald," and would spend Christmas with Paulding at Hyde Park. The 
ex-President did visit his son and family for three weeks in March, 
but found the trip to New York a "dreadful job." 

Abraham and the rest returned to Lindenwald in June, but shortly 
thereafter the major was called to active duty during the war with 
Mexico, which would last until February 1848. In the interval, when 
Angelica was not at Lindenwald or visiting her family in South Caro- 
lina, she was at her home on New York's Fifth Avenue. 

In July 1846 Van Buren received an unexpected visitor from England, 
Mrs. Sarah M. Maury, and treated her and her child with the utmost 

graciousness and cordiality. After answering the door himself, Van 

27 
Buren invited her to stay, and she relates: 



18 



...we sat down in a cool and pleasant parlor; iced 
water, lemonade, and wine were immediately pre- 
sented; we were introduced to the family of Mr. Van 
Buren, and after tea rambled through the garden and 
the farm. The ex-President gathered flowers for me, 
led us to look at his potatoes, presented me with a 
branch of delicious red currants.... 



Mrs. Maury found the ex-President perfectly happy to be surrounded by 

his family and quoted Van Buren's friend and former Attorney General, 

28 
Henry D. Gilpin, in her book, The Statesmen of America in 1846 : 

"It is impossible to describe a more affectionate 
family," says one who knows him well, and loves him 
much, "than the home circle at Kinderhook. The in- 
tercourse between the father and his sons is of the 
most confidential and endearing kind. The amiable 
disposition of Mr. Van Buren, his invariable good 
humour and indulgence, make every inmate of his 
household happy." 



Van Buren wrote Blair in January 1847 that Lindenwald was "flowering 
in the midst of snow and ice" and that he had made a series of im- 
provements to the house at a cost of between $1,500 and $2,000. In 

May, the "painters, carpenters, masons, & ditchers" were still on the 

29 
scene, but it is not apparent what the improvements consisted of. 

January 1848 found Van Buren in New York City for the season, while 
Martin, Jr., visited the Blairs in Silver Spring, Maryland. The 
third son's health, never very good, was failing. Not much is known 
about the ex-President's namesake; however, the existing correspon- 
dence indicates he possessed a good sense of humor and an eye for the 
ladies, not unlike his father. His letter to Angelica in 1840 light- 
heartedly describes the Washington visit of the celebrated Austrian 

30 
dancer, Fanny Elssler: 



19 



The President [Van Buren] with the ladies & gent of 
his Cabinet witnessed the "Divine Fanny" dancing 
night before last. She was in good case and out 
Fannied Fanny. . .[She] returned the P's visit yester- 
day. ..appeared \/ery amiable & interesting, not as 
handsome as W. but excellent in figure. She sailed 
gracefully through the East Circular, both dining & 
ante rooms in the wake of the Com & myself, & left 
for the Dpt of State where Mr. Martin shewed her the 
"bigseals" snuffbox etc. etc. 



The Van Burens' fascination with Fanny Elssler apparently continued, 
as her likeness graced Lindenwald along with that of family friend 
Francis Blair and other prominent persons. 

Martin, Jr., described as "pleasant, unpretentious, unpretending, 
civil, and amiable," never married, although he expressed some inter- 
est in a Miss Croghan and had an "affair du coeur" with an unnamed 

lady in 1844. At Lindenwald, Martin served as his father's secretary 

31 
until they both traveled to Europe in 1853. 

Martin Van Buren, Sr., returned to "sweet Lindenwald" in April 1848 
and was "entirely alone" until May when Martin, Abraham, and Angelica 
returned. Abraham had been injured during the war with Mexico and 
had been promoted to the rank of brevet lieutenant colonel for "Gal- 
lant and Meritorious Conduct in the Battles of Contreras and Churu- 
busco." After the war, he continued in service as Paymaster in New 
York City until 1854. 32 

Although "the Colonel" suffered from feeble eyesight and an injured 
leg, he persisted in horseback riding to improve his condition. The 
children, Singleton and "Matty," were also quite active that summer, 
having become "perfect little savages. . .running wild with the garden- 
er's and farmer's children. 10 



20 



Smith's wife Ellen, who had lost an infant in 1846, was successfully 
delivered of a son, Edward Livingston, in July 1848, and Angelica 
gave birth to her last child, Travis Coles, in the fall of the same 
year. 

1848 was an eventful year for the ex-President himself, as he reen- 
tered the political arena for the final time as the presidential can- 
didate of the Free Soil Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery 
into new U.S. territories. The Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor, tri- 
umphed over the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass, but Van Buren man- 
aged to capture 10% of the popular vote. 

1849-1862 

Although Van Buren believed in 1847 that Lindenwald could "receive no 
further improvement," great changes were in the offing in 1849 when 
he wrote to Blair: "Don't think me deranged when I say to you that 
my quiet & as was generally supposed my perfect or at least comfort- 
able establishment is to be turned topsy turvy, & the music of its 
feathered visitors drowned in the harsh sounds of the ax, the saw, & 
the trowel." 34 

These changes were precipitated by an arrangement with his youngest 
son. Having had his fill of "the vices of idleness & City Life," 
Smith accepted his father's offer of becoming the "heir apparent" of 
Lindenwald in exchange for Smith's living at Lindenwald and pursuing 
there his heretofore undistinguished professional career, presumably 
in law or politics. Smith had his own requirements in the bargain, 
however: 

Smith made it an indispensible condition that he 
should be permitted to add sufficient to my House to 
make as many rooms as he may want without entering 



21 



upon what I now have. I at first rejected this as 
impracticable without detriment to the appearance of 
the old House. But he & his wife have been to New 
York to consult the great architectural oracle (Mr. 
Upjohn) and as I anticipate the response (which I 
have not read) it will be that to accomplish the ob- 
ject satisfactorily radical changes will become 
necessary--such as taking down the present stable 
wings & erecting Towers in their places--the addi- 
tion of Dormant [sic] Windows & God knows all what. 



Ironically, Smith would thus have the perfect opportunity to rectify 
what he had considered the misjudgments of his father's insufficient 
taste and counsel, which had distressed his son ten years earlier 
when the house was first purchased. 

Van Buren conceded on the house, but insisted that the grounds, which 
he had taken such a personal role in improving, would not be 
touched: 

...to amuse myself with the changes which he would 
be sure to make when I was no more I have agreed 
that he may go to Work now as far only as it relates 
to the buildings. . .the works of demolition & substi- 
tution are to commence in a few days. What curious 
creatures we are. Old Mr. Van Ness built as fine an 
House here as any reasonable man could, ...its taste 
of what was then. . .deemed the best. William P. came 
and disfigured every thing his father had done. I 
succeeded him, & pulled down without a single excep- 
tion every erection he had made, & with evident ad- 
vantage. Now comes Smith & pulls down many things I 
had put up and makes alterations without stint. The 
four operations will cost nearer fifty than forty 
thousand dollars for the buildings alone. What non- 
sense. 

Most of Van Buren' s friends, including Mr. and Mrs. Henry D. Gilpin 

of Philadelphia, rallied around the decision and expected that hospi- 

37 
tality at Lindenwald would not be diminished: 



22 



...let me tell you how glad I was to learn that 
Smith and his wife are going to join you at Linden- 
wald Their consideration too in not taking posses- 
sion of your rooms so as to exclude certain annual 
visitors who expect free quarters is a new mark of 
their prudent consideration for which my wife and 
myself will give our particular thanks. 



The immense project was begun in the spring, but the disruption did 
not prevent Van Buren from inviting Henry Clay to visit on his way 
home from Saratoga at the end of the summer season. Angelica, on the 
other hand, was confined to New York that summer, in mourning for her 
mother. 

The work progressed uninterrupted even by tragedy, when Smith's wife 
Ellen died of consumption on October 30, a few weeks after the birth 
of another daughter, Catherine Barber. Leaving Martin, Jr., behind 
to supervise the alterations, Van Buren, Smith, and the children 
spent the winter in New York. 

In the spring of 1850, Van Buren, Smith, and family returned to Lin- 
denwald and Martin, Jr., again went to visit the Blairs. During the 
next summer and fall, Van Buren enjoyed the brandied peaches sent up 
by Mrs. Blair, "glorious fishing," and the company of the Poinsetts 
and the Cambrelengs, while Smith fretted over the details and ex- 
penses of the construction of Lindenwald's new library and front 
porch. All work was successfully completed by the end of the year 
and Lindenwald was transformed. 

Except for a brief visit to New York in the fall, Van Buren had re- 
mained within the precincts of Lindenwald, and he wrote to Benjamin 

Butler in May 1851: "I have not slept out of my own bed nor spent 

38 
more than 2 evenings out of my own House." By that time, the colo- 



23 



nel and his family had settled into their new home on East 21st 
Street, but that did not preclude them from spending part of the sum- 
mer at Lindenwald. The entertainment routine continued as usual as 
Van Buren hosted Governor Throop and his party, the Blairs, and his 
own niece, Miss Cantine. 

In March 1853 action at Lindenwald diminished as Van Buren and Mar- 
tin, Jr., traveled to Europe, principally for the benefit of the lat- 
ter* s health. The ex-President toured Ireland, Scotland, England, 
Italy, France, and Switzerland while the son stayed at various water- 
ing places. The two were joined abroad by John, Abraham, Angelica, 
and the boys in 1854. Only Smith and his three children remained 
behind. 

Smith made good use of his time finding a new wife, Henrietta Irving 
of Oyster Bay, a great-niece of Washington Irving. They became en- 
gaged in October 1854, and were married the following February at 
Grace Church in New York, with the famous author in attendance. 

News from Europe was not as joyful. Martin, Jr.'s, health continued 
to deteriorate and he died in Paris on March 19, 1855, at the age of 
43. Returning to the United States in June, Van Buren buried his 
youngest son in the Kinderhook Cemetery, beside Van Buren's beloved 
wife Hannah. 

John and Abraham also returned to the States in 1855, while Angelica 
and her sons remained in Europe another year. 

Apparently, the two-family living arrangements that had commenced at 
Lindenwald in 1849 worked well and the introduction of the new Mrs. 
Smith T. Van Buren on the scene posed no problems. Van Buren had 



24 



been extremely fond of his daughters-in-law and he undoubtedly 
welcomed the addition, particularly in view of his recent loss of 
Martin, Jr. Although correspondence does not indicate what role 
Henrietta played in running the household, family relations and 
household operations continued harmoniously for the next seven years. 

In March 1856 Smith and Henrietta's first child, another Martin, was 
born. By 1861 Henrietta, 15 years her husband's junior, would bear 
two daughters, Eliza Eckford and Marion Irving. 

Van Buren visited his now-widower friend Benjamin Butler and his fam- 
ily in New York, but for the most part, admitting his "visiting days 
are over," he occupied himself with reading, writing, and riding at 
Lindenwald. He experienced some mishaps as a result of the latter, 

fortunately none too serious. He also suffered from dyspepsia and 

39 
gout, but was still remarkably vigorous for his seventy-four years. 

Smith and his family continued to divide their time between Linden- 
wald and New York. Van Buren's sister Diercke and niece, Christina 
Cantine, however, often kept him company in the later years. 

In the spring of 1858 the artist G.P.A. Healy visited Lindenwald to 
undertake a portrait of the ex-President commissioned for the White 
House. The completed portrait shows a dignified and robust Van 
Buren; it greatly pleased the subject. 



A few months later- Benjamin Butler died, leaving in his will a be- 

40 
quest and tribute to his "early patron and friend." 



Van Buren's oldest grandchild had by that time, following in his fa- 
ther's footsteps, entered the United States Military Academy at West 



25 



Point. Unfortunately, Singleton failed his required examinations and 
was not able to complete his education at the academy. This fact 

caused great distress to his parents and grandfather, although some 

41 
consolation could be found, as Van Buren wrote Angelica: 

Nothing could have had a greater effect in relieving 
my mortification at Singleton's failure than your 
excellent letter Such indications of self posses- 
sion in trouble and superiority to temporary afflic- 
tions are strong proof of great strength of mind.... 
The first. . .thing. . .to ascertain is whether his 
present humiliation has had the effect to brace his 
nerves and stimulate him to the greatest possible 
efforts in what he next undertakes. 



In January 1860 Van Buren wrote his will, but he had yet to live 
another two and a half years surrounded by his family at Lindenwald. 

He lived to see the Civil War erupt in his beloved country in 1861 

42 
and was a "thorough-going Union man and no secessionist." He was, 

however, deeply troubled and "when sensible and collected he mani- 
fested the most lively interest in public affairs, expressed his 
confidence in Mr. [Abraham] Lincoln and General [George] McClellan, 
denounced Mr. [James] Buchanan fervently, and declared that the 

rebellion would be put down without any permanent damage to the 

43 
Un i on . " 

Weakened by asthma and its complications, Martin Van Buren died at 
Lindenwald on July 24, 1862. Funeral services were held at Linden- 
wald for the immediate family and then at the Dutch Reformed Church 
where the ex-President had worshipped during his many years in Kin- 

derhook. The obituary in the New York Times poignantly described the 

44 
mood of the village on the day Van Buren was laid to rest: 

The pleasant village of Kinderhook, on the far up 
Hudson, long since made famous as the birthplace and 
residence of Martin Van Buren, the boon-companion, 



26 



friend, counselor and successor in office of Andrew 
Jackson, yesterday paid her last earthly honors to 
her favorite son. While in other portions of the 
country the thousands of flags, waving at half-mast, 
bespoke the sorrow of the Nation at the loss of an 
Ex-President, in the village of Kinderhook the em- 
blems of mourning were of a more heartfelt charac- 
ter, and betokened a deeper sorrow at the loss of an 
old neighbor, a kind friend, and an esteemed citi- 
zen. Business was entirely suspended in the vil- 
lage, the stores were all closed, and many of them, 
as well as the principal hotel of the place, were 
draped in mourning. The people of the surrounding 
country appeared to have turned out en masse to the 
funeral, and the number of old men to be seen among 
them was truly a marvel. It would hardly seem that 
the Ex-President, octogenarian though he was, out- 
lived a majority of friends of his boyhood. 



Afterword. Van Buren had hoped that Lindenwald would remain in the 

famil, 

will: 



family, and it was offered first to Smith under the terms of the 
45 



Lastly, I hereby give devise & bequeath to my three 
sons Abraham, John & Smith Thompson all the remain- 
der & residue of my personal estate not required for 
the purposes of my Will under the provisions above 
made, & all my real estate wheresoever situated, to 
be equally divided between them, To Have and to Hold 
their respective shares thereof to them, their heirs 
& assigns forever, subject to the following condi- 
tions & reservations, Viz first that out of avails 
of the sale of Lindenwald there shall be reserved & 
paid over to my son Smith Thompson his heirs or as- 
signs the sum of Seven Thousand five hundred dollars 
in full satisfaction for his advances towards the 
expenses incurred by the additions to and improve- 
ments upon the dwelling house & out buildings with 
the expectation that the Place would be devised to 
him upon terms that would be equitable in respect to 
his brothers, the payment to be without interest 
during my life time. Secondly, that upon the sale 
of Lindenwald the preference shall be offered in 
succession to my sons, beginning for the reason 
above assigned & no other, with the youngest, if the 
son accepting the same is willing to pay therefor as 
much as the place can be sold for in the market. 



27 



The youngest son, however, chose to move his family to Dutchess 
County. Abraham was settled comfortably in New York, so it devolved 
upon John to purchase his brothers' interests in the estate. 

John lived at Lindenwald with his daughter for about a year, but suf- 
fering from ill health and financial difficulties, he could not man- 
age both Lindenwald and his New York law practice and was compelled 
to dispose of the property in 1864. Thus, after a quarter-century of 
the Van Buren regime, John and Anna were the last of the ex-Presi- 
dent's line to inhabit Lindenwald and call Kinderhook home. John 
returned to New York and outlived his father by only four years. 
Anna stayed with the colonel's family until she married in 1870. 

Abraham and Angelica remained a part of New York society until their 
respective deaths in 1873 and 1878. Singleton, Mat, and Travis, all 
unmarried, died within eleven years of their mother. 

Smith died in 1876, survived by his wife and all of the children, 
save Edward, the oldest son. Henrietta eventually moved to England 
and died forty-five years after her husband, in 1921. Her donation 
of the Van Buren papers to the Library of Congress in 19C4-1905 was 
most fortunate. 

Martin IV died unmarried in New York in 1942 and his sister Eliza 
sometime before. Smith's three other daughters—Catherine, Ellen, 
and Marion—each married and the latter two had children whose de- 
scendants are now actively involved in the restoration of Lindenwald. 

For additional information on the Van Buren family, their servants, 
visitors to Lindenwald, and a list of owners of the property, see 
Appendixes G-K of this report. 



28 



Footnotes 



1. John Piatt, Lindenwald Historic Resource Study (Denver: 
National Park Service, 198?)V"pps."53, 63." Cited hereafter as Piatt, 
HRS. 



2. John C. Fitzpa trick, ed., The Autobiography of Martin Van 
Buren (Mew York: Da Capo Press, 1973), p. 177' 



3. Smith Thompson Van Buren to Angelica Van Buren, July 30, 
1839. MAVA, Cat. No. 714. 



Ibid 



5. Will of Martin Van Buren, January 18, 1860. Columbia 
County Courthouse, Hudson, New York. 



6. Smith Thompson Van Buren to Angelica Van Buren, MAVA. 



7. Smith Thompson Van Buren to Martin Van Buren, Jr., July 
31, 1839. Van Buren Papers, Library of Congress, as quoted in Piatt, 
HRS, p. 52. 



8. Angelica Van Buren to Mrs. Richard Singleton, November 1 
and 4, 1840. Angelica Singleton Van Buren Papers, Library of Con- 
gress [LC-ASVB]. 



Ibid 



10. Angelica Van Buren to Mrs. Richard Singleton, December 
29, 1840. LC-ASVB. 

11. Ibid., June 7, 1845. LC-ASVB. 



12. Martin Van Buren to Francis P. Blair, September 18, 1841, 
Van Buren Papers, Library of Congress [LC-VB]. 



2o 



13. Na shville Union , April 28, 1842. Andrew Jackson Papers, 
Library of Congress. 



14. Richard B. Gooch to Mrs. Gooch, September 10, 1842 
Charles L. Chandler Papers, University of Virginia Library. 



15. Martin Van Buren to Benjamin F. Butler, October 23, 1842, 
LC-VB. 



16. Angelica Van Buren to Mrs. Richard Singleton, July 9, 
1843. LC-ASVB. 



17. Ibid., August 24, 1843. LC-ASVB. 

18. Ibid., September 14, 1843. LC-ASVB 



19. Journal of Gideon Welles, October 19, 1843. Gideon 
Welles Papers, Library of Congress. 



20. Angelica Van Buren to Mrs. Richard Singleton, November 
25, 1843 and December 6, 1843. LC-ASVB. 



21. Abraham Van Buren to Martin Van Buren, November 28, 1844. 
LC-VB. 



22. William G. Bryan to Lyman C. Draper, January 1, 1846. 
Draper Correspondence, Wisconsin Historical Society. 



23. Ibid. 



24. Angelica Van Buren to Mrs. Richard Singleton, June 7, 
1845, LC-ASVB. 



25. Smith Thompson Van Buren to Martin Van Buren, August 10, 
1845. Alexander Duer Harvey Papers, Pennsylvania State University, 
Media [PSU-ADH]. 



30 



26. Martin Van Buren to Francis P. Blair, October 15, 1845, 
and Martin Van Buren to Gorham Worth, November 7, 1845 (LC-VB); Mar- 
tin Van Buren to Henry D. Gilpin, February 4, 1845 (Van Buren Papers, 
New York State Library). 



27. Sarah M. Maury, The Statesmen of America in 1846 (Phila- 
delphia: Cary & Hart, 1847), ~p.'T&". 



28. Ibid., p. 69 



29. Martin Van Buren to Francis P. Blair, January 12, 1847 
(Blair Family Papers, LC); Martin Van Buren to Gorham Worth, May 23, 
1847 (LC-VB). 



30. Martin Van Buren, Jr., to Angelica Van Buren, July 17, 
1840. MAVA, Cat. No. 723. 



31. Angelica Singleton to Mrs. Richard Singleton, March 23, 
1838 (LC-ASVB); Smith Thompson Van Buren to Angelica Van Buren, July 
30, 1839 (MAVA, Cat. No. 714); Smith Thompson Van Buren to Martin Van 
Buren, February 16, 1844 (PSU-ADH). 



32. Martin Van Buren to Francis P. Blair, April 8 and April 
24, 1848 (Blair Papers, LC); George Washington Cullum, Biographical 
R?5J ster of t he O fficers a nd Grad uates of the U.S. Military Ac ademy. 



33. Angelica Van Buren to Marion DeVeaux, July 5, 1848. LC- 
ASVB. 



34. Martin Van Buren to Francis P. Blair, February 16, 1848. 
Blair Papers, LC. 



35. Ibid. 

36. Martin Van Buren to Gorham Worth, April 9, 1849. LC-VB, 

37. Henry D. Gilpin to Martin Van Buren, June 13, 1849. LC- 
VB. 

31 



38. Martin Van Buren to Benjamin F. Butler, May 20, 1851. 
LC-VB. 



39. Martin Van Buren to Francis P. Blair, May 21, 1856 (Blair 
Papers, LC); Henry D. Gilpin to Martin Van Buren, July 17, 1856 (LC- 
VB); Martin Van Buren to Benjamin F. Butler, April 17, 1857 (VB Pa- 
pers, NYSL). 



40. Will of Benjamin F. Butler, extract in the hand of Mrs. 
STVB, February 23, 1859, LC-VB; Charlotte A. Brown to Martin Van 
Buren, November 11, 1858, Gilpin Papers, Poinsett Section, HSP. 



41. Martin Van Buren to Angelica Van Buren, January 16, 1859 
MAVA Cat. No. 705. 



42, Martin Van Buren to Edward Livingston Van Buren, June 17, 
1861 MAVA Cat. No. 686. 



43. New York Herald, July 25, 1862, 

44. New York Times, July 29, 1862. 



45. Will of Martin Van Buren, January 18, 1860, Columbia 
County Courthouse, Hudson, New York. 



32 



EVIDENCE OF ROOM USE, 1841-1862 

Introduction 

Evidence of room functions and original furnishings at Lindenwald 
during the Van Buren period, c. 1841-1862, is not abundant. Great 
effort has been made in this Historic Furnishings Report, however, to 
gather what scant evidence exists, evaluate it, and present it in a 
coherent format. 

In this section of the report is presented the documentary and physi- 
cal evidence for usage of, and particular furnishings in, each room. 
Much documentary evidence is taken from the Historic Resource Study 
(Piatt, 1982), which concentrates on the Richard and Richard M. Up- 
john Papers at the New York Public Library and on Richard Upjohn 's 
"Plan Book" at Columbia University's Avery Library. Other sources 
adding to the documentary evidence are various writings of Van Buren, 
his family and contemporaries, as well as late nineteenth- and early 
twentieth-century newspaper accounts, architectural drawings, photo- 
graphs, and oral history. All references &re listed with their re- 
spective sources. 

Physical evidence, also presented room by room, is extracted from the 
Historic Structure Report (Howell, 1985), including the "Finishes 
Study" which details wallpaper research. The physical evidence 
listed in this section is only that which is relevant to the Van 
Buren period. For detailed information on structural features and 
changes from 1797 to 1974, the reader is directed to the HSR. 

The room-by-room summaries of room functions present my own conclu- 
sions based on all of the direct evidence, on the HSR's determina- 
tions and suppositions, and on period practice. 



V 



The following section of this report presents evidence of original fur- 
nishings at Lindenwald, not room specific. An introductory essay 
gives the background of Van Buren's furnishing tastes and practices 
prior to his occupying Lindenwald as well as an overview of furnish- 
ings at Lindenwald, c. 1841-1862, and in the post-Van Buren period. 

This section is arranged by specific furniture and furnishing type. 
References are given for each type, using much the same documentary 
sources as outlined above. 

Extant furniture and furnishings are also described to contribute to 
the evidence and a summary of all evidence concludes the discussion 
of each type. Additional information on furnishings for each room 
is found in the Recommended Furnishings Section of this report. 

ROOM USE 

Room 005 — Servants' Dining Room 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1845, June 7. ASVB to Mrs. Singleton (LC-ASVB ) 

"There is still a good deal to do in the way of getting the house 
straight again... 2 doz. napkins 1 doz. chamber towels. . .pantry & 
kitchen are already marked & put in use." 

2. 1849, December 3. STVB to Richard Upjohn [RU] (Piatt, HRS, 
P. 89 ) 

"Another test of the cause of the difficulty, and of the direction in 
which the flames lies, was afforded on Saturday last. For the accom- 
modation of the glazier a fire was started in the room in the old 
house under the breakfast room , where a fire has been used every win- 
ter since the house was occupied by my father, & the consequence of 
tinkering with the flues was that the smoke filled the breakfast room 
to such a degree that the glazier was obliged to seek another place 
for his work & the fire was necessarily extinguished." 



34 



3. 1938, February. Victor A. deProsse, "Basement P1an--Linden - 
wald " 

"Svts Dining R. " 

4. Tradition, HSR 
"Servants' dining room." 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Wallpaper (W001), HSR-FS 

Call bells, HSR 

Base cabinet and shelves in NE corner, HSR 

Proximity to kitchen (006), HSR 

Stairway to dining/breakfast room (109), HSR 

Fireplace, HSR 



SUMMARY: Although there is no period documentary evidence for its 
function, the HSR accepts this room as the "servants' dining room" 
based on the oral tradition of the deProsse family and on physical 
evidence such as the proximity to the kitchen, call bells, and the c. 
1850 wallpaper. 

The location of this room in the basement denotes its use by ser- 
vants. A "butler's pantry" would be a logical period use for a room 
adjacent to the kitchen and family dining area and the cabinet and 
shelves do indicate some storage capability in this room. The 
decorative wallpaper and the original existence of a fireplace, 
however, indicate a more social function for this room. Perhaps it 
served concurrently as a butler's pantry and as a dining room for the 
servants. 

Room 006--Kitchen 



DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
1. 1845, June 7. ASVB to Mrs. Singleton (LC-ASVB ) 



35 



"There is still a good deal to do in the way of getting the house 
straight again... 2 doz. napkins 1 doz. chamber towels. . .pantry & 
kitchen are already marked & put in use." 

2 - 1849, December 3. ST VB to RU ( P iatt, HRS, p. 89 ) 

"Barney's reply about the flues and the damage to the walls is not 
admissable [sic], because the damage resulted mainly and in the first 
instance, from smoke caused by a single fire in the wash room (first 
started by himself to try the draft and afterward continued by the 
servants for household purposes) retu rning into the other rooms where 
there were no fires: viz. into the Kitchen thro' the open-door, and 
into the Bed-room and the bath-Room thro' their respective flues." 

3 - 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Basement P1an--Lindenwald " 
"Kitchen." 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Cast-iron range and ovens on N wall (Moses Pond Union Range), HSR 

Circular brick oven in NW corner, HSR 

Pipes and markings for sink in SW corner, HSR 

Storage cabinets between windows, HSR 



SUMMARY: The physical evidence is conclusive for a kitchen function 
in this room after the 1849 Upjohn alterations. The location of the 
kitchen before 1849 remains a mystery (HSR). It may have been locat- 
ed in 005 or, as possibly, in one of the former wings. 



Room 007 — Washroom (Laundry Roo m) 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 . 1 849, Novembe r 22. STVB to RU (Piatt, HR S, p. 86 ) 

"If you had been here since McGuire left I am sure you would have 
seen enough to satisfy you of the justice of my complaints. The 
flues from the Wash-room, Bed-room and Bath-room have smoked so bad- 
ly that the walls are entirely black, and the ceiling also of the 
Bed room destroyed." 



36 



2 • .1 849, December 3, STVB to RU [ PI at t^JHRS^j > ^_88 ) 

"Barney's reply about the flues and the damage to the walls is not 
admissable [sic], because the damage resulted mainly in the first in- 
stance, from the smoke caused by a single fire in the wash room 
(first started by himself to try the draft and afterward continued by 
the servants for household purposes) returning into the other rooms 
where there were no fires: viz. into the Kitchen thro the open-door, 
and into the Bed-room and the bath- Room thro' their respective 
flues." 

3 • 1850 , April 20. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 90) 

"...I promised him to say to you that the Wash-room flue is at length 
cured — having experienced the reverse of the natural rule, viz. being 
jmpk_ejJ_^efore it was cured: and well smoked it was." 

4 • 1850, July 27. ST VB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 99) 

"The Laundry flue continues to smoke as badly as ever— rendering the 
use of the room impossible frequently & always more or less uncom- 
fortable: & I have had a mason here almost all the time pointing up 
some rough work, & tinkering on the flues." 

5 • 1? 18 ,_ J; e brua ry. V.A. deProsse, "Ba sement Plan— Lindenwald" 

"Room." 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Hand pump (Downes & Co., Seneca Fa^s No. 3), HSR 

Lead-lined wood sink, HSR 

Cast-iron fireback. HSR 

Pivot for bell pull wire on N wall, HSR 



SUMMARY: Documentary evidence c. 1849 indicates the washroom was lo- 
cated in the basement next to the kitchen, "thro 1 the open-door," and 
there is physical evidence of plumbing to corroborate the laundry 
function in this room. 



37 



Room 101 — Bedroom 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1841, May 15. MVB to Harriet Butler [HB] (Piatt, HRS, p. 58 ) 
"This is to be the best Bed Room & is downstairs." 

2 . 1841, May 17. HB to MVB (Piatt, HRS, p. 59 ) 
"...two kinds of paper for the lower bedroom..." 

3. 1891, G.A. Townsend, in "New York Sun " 

"To the left was the ex-President's living room, or double parlor; to 
the right sitting room and dining room." 

4. 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Main Floor Plan--Lindenwald " 
"Dining Room." 

5. Figs. 1, 2, this report. 
Photographs, c. 1930s (bedroom). 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Fireboard #88 (border matches upstairs bedroom), HSR-FS 

Tack with wool fibers from floor, Memo, 0. Carroll to C. Kohan, and 
Memo, E. McManus to B. Cliver, May 12 and 14, 1984. See Recommended 
Furnishings, Room 101, #14. 

Secondary decorative treatment, HSR 

Hot-air register in floor, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



SUMMARY: Period documentary evidence and physical evidence, partic- 
ularly the border of the fireboard from this room, point to this 
room's use as a bedroom during the historic period; the c. 1930s pho- 
tograph also shows bedroom furnishings. Townsend's 1891 reference to 
a dining room here is not substantiated by pre-1862 evidence and may 
simply reflect a later use of the room. 



38 



Room 102— Closet 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: None 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: None 

Room 103 — Closet 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: None 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Opening for hot-air register in S and E walls, HSR 

Ghost of object on E wall, HSR 

Room 104 — Sitting Room 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 . 1843, June 20 and 22. ASVB to Mrs. RS (LC-ASVB ) 

"We have had a fire in the sitting room nearly every day & occasion- 
ally even in my bedroom." 

2. 1891, G.A. Townsend, in "New York Sun" 

"To the left was the ex-President's living room, or double parlor; to 
the right sitting room and dining room." 

3. 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Main Floor Plan--Lindenwald 
"Green Room." 

4. Figs. 3, 4, 5 
Photographs, c. 1930s. 



39 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Pier mirror in situ, HSR 

Fireboard #85, HSR-FS 

Wallpaper (W005) sample in situ, HSR-FS 

White marble mantel, HSR 

Cast-iron fireback, HSR 

Decorative woodwork, HSR 

Hot-air register, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



SUMMARY: Physical evidence such as the decorative woodwork, white 
marble mantelpiece, and pier mirror suggest a social function for 
this room, similar to that of Room 106 across the hall. Period prac- 
tice and Angelica Van Buren's reference to a "sitting room" suggest 
that a slightly less formal gathering place for family and friends 
may have been located in this room. 



Room 105— Hall 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

!• 1841, May 15. MVB to HB (Pia tt, HRS , p. 58) 

"Let the paper be neat but not expensive. Something like that we 
first selected for the lower Hall might do." 

2 . 1841, May 17. HB to MVB (Piatt, HRS, p. 59 ) 

"The Hall paper you will observe is an old favorite of mine..." 

3 • 1843, August 24. ASVB to Mrs. RS (LC-ASVB ) 

"...by using great caution I was able to be carried down & laid on 
the Hall sofa." 



40 



4 • 1 843, _Qct ober 1 9 . Gi d eon_ Wei les, Journal (LC-Welles) 

"It is a large house, built of brick, with the front rooms and most 
spacious hall extending through the body of the house." 

5- 1845, June 7. ASVB to Mrs. R S (LC-ASVB ) 

"...his little shrieks of delight can be heard all over the house 
when he is shown the dogs, cows, etc. of the Hall paper." 

6. 1849^ October 23. T.B. Van Slyck to R . Upjohn (Piatt, HRS , 

"...the opening is made close to the partition wall of the old hall 
11 

7 • 1850, May 13. STVB t o RU (P ia tt, HRS, p. 93 ) 

"My father complains that I have made his h all dark, by my improve- 
ments. " 

8 - 1850, May 5. STVB to RU (Piat t, HRS, p. 93 ) 

"You may send me. ..also the drawing you mentioned for a Glass door 
leading from the old Hall to the new." 

9 • 1 850, July 27. STVB t o RU (Pi att , HRS, p. 95 ) 

"I think an ordinary door (painted white like the other wood work in 
the Ha11--instead of Blk. walnut) will answer, with the Glass of 
white plate containing 4 large panes, & a border only such as you 
have drawn, of stained glass. What do you think of this?" 

10. 1854 (r ecallin g c. 1804 visit). MVB Autobiography (Da Capo 
Press, 19 73 ed., p. 17 "T~ 

"We passed thro' the Hall, and, as we left the house by the back door 



11. 1891, G.A. Townsend (as quoted in Collier, 1914, p. 377, and 
E berlein, 1 924, p. 219 ) 

"Beyond the door appeared a fine straight hall which was paced as 
being about fifty-five by fifteen feet and appeared to be eleven or 
twelve feet high. Its four doors were in the early carpentry of this 
century with manipulation around their tops. At the rear, nearly 



41 



concealed in the side of the hall, under a sort of alcove, was a 

stairway, pretty wide and low and long-stepped. The feature of this 

hall, I had almost said its beauty, is the foreign wallpaper, in 
large landscapes. . ." 

12. 1906, February 22, "The Columbia Republican." E.P. Hoes, 
quoting his fatFer P.V.B. Hoes 

"One day soon after he (VB) had settled at Lindenwold [sic] a caller 
was approaching his surroundings and remarked: 'Ah, I see, sir, you 
have an old fashioned Dutch clock in the hall.'" 

13. H. Peckham, History of CM. Van Buren, 1913, p. 119 

"...drawing of the Coat-of-Arms. . .remembered by persons still living 
as having hung on the wall of the hall at Lindenwald." 

14. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man, 1929, p. 508 

"On a mahogany console in the great hall was the familiar punchbowl 
ii 

15. 1938, February. V.A . deProsse, "Main Floor Plan--Lindenwald " 
"Banquet Hall." 

1 6 . Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9 
Photographs, c. 1917, 1930s. 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Scenic wallpaper and dado in situ , HSR-FS 

Brussels carpet in situ , HSR 

Chandelier, HFR 

3 Ceiling medallions, HSR 

2 Hot-air registers, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



42 



SUMMARY: The use of this room as a hall is well -documented in Martin 
Van Buren, Van Buren family, and other period manuscripts. A formal 
dining function is suggested primarily by oral tradition, by the ex- 
istence of a large dining table which extends to seat 30 and could 
fit in no other space, and by the presence of the decorative scenic 
wallpaper, Brussels carpet, chandelier, and bell system. 



Room 106 — Drawing Room or Parlor 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1841, May 17. HB to MVB (Piatt, HRS, p. 59 ) 

"There was no pattern among them that would match \/ery well with the 
d rawi ng room pa pe r . . . " 

2. 1843, October 19. G. Welles, Journal (LC) 

"I was shown by a boy into the East or rather SE room (for the house 
has a S.E. front), and the President in a few moments came from the 
opposite room." 

3. 1846, January 16 (recalling April 1845 visit). W.G. Bryan to 
L.C. Draper (WHS ) 

"The house is richly but plainly furnished— as you enter the parlor 
you see on the right of the door an excellent painting of Jefferson , 
on the left of Jackson ." 

4. S.M. Maury, The Statesmen of America in 1846, p. 68 

"...we sat down in a cool and pleasant parlor; ice water, lemonade, 
and wine were immediately presented..." 

5. 1854 (recalling c. 1804 visit). MVB Autobiography (Da Capo 
Press, 1973 ed". , p. 17 ) 

[Peter Van Ness] "passed into the drawing room without looking behind 
him..." 

6. 1891, G.A. Townsend, in "New York Sun" 

"Beneath the center in the main storey [sic] is a small covered por- 
tico, with easy flights of steps and balusters. To the left was the 



43 



ex-President's living room or double parlor; to the right sitting 
room and dining room... I entered the parlor, and through it the li- 
brary. The parlor is double, and closets are contained within the 
frame of its folding door. Pieces of Mr. Van Buren's furniture are 
still here, although the late Aaron Vanderpoel , who resided in Kin- 
derhook, got a good deal of it. Veneered mahogany was the general 
material. A tall gilt mirror remains, and a carved dressing case. 

7 - 1 938, February. V.A. dePro sse, "Main Floor P1an--I_indenwald " 
"Red Room." 

8 - Figs. 10, 11, 12, 1 3, 14, 15 
Photographs, c. 1930s. 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Pier mirror, in s itu , HSR 

Fireboard #84, HSR-FS 

Wallpaper (W006) sample in situ , HSR-FS 

Gray marble mantel, HSR 

Most decorative woodwork (including ogee arch), HSR 

8 Drapery Hooks (2 over each window), HSR 

4 Picture hanging buttons, HSR 

1 Picture hook over mantel, HFR (CEK) 

1 Hook over mirror, HFR (CEK) 

Tack marks, 3' width, HSR 

Grass matting sample, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



SUMMARY: Physical evidence such as the highly decorative woodwork, 
gray marble mantelpiece, pier mirror, and hardware for hanging drap- 
eries and pictures, is abundant for designating this room as the 



44 



drawing room or parlor, i.e., the formal room where guests were en- 
tertained. The documentary evidence suggests that the Van Burens 
called it the drawing room. 



Room 107— Closet 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 . 1891, G.A. Town s end, in "New York Sun" 

"The parlor is double, and the closets are contained within the frame 
of its folding door." 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Shelves and moulded ledgers, HSR 

Room 108— Closet; Stairway from 109 to 005 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: None. 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Wallpaper (W001) fragments, HSR-FS 

Room 109 — Dining Room or Breakfast Room 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1841, May 15. MVB to HB (Piatt, HRS, p. 58 ) 

"No. 3 Let this be of the same kind with that which was sent for the 
dining Room, yellow with gold &c." 

2. 1841, May 17. HB to MVB (Piatt, HRS, p. 59 ) 

"There was no pattern among them that would match ^ery well with the 
drawing room paper— there was one gold one which I thought might an- 
swer for the dining room..." 



45 



3. 1843, October 19. G. Welles, Journal (LC) 

"I was shown by a boy into the East or rather SE room... the President 

in a few moments came in from the opposite room Breakfast was on 

the table..." 

4. 1849, October 23. T.B. Van Slyck to RU (Piatt, p. 85 ) 

"...I received your favour yesterday with the drawing for the break- 
fast room door...." [See Room lllLibrary, reference 9.] 

5. 1849, December 3. STVB to RU (Piatt, p. 89 ) 

"For the accommodation of the glazier a fire was started in the room 
in the old house under the breakfast room , where a fire has been used 
every winter since the house was occupied by my father, & the conse- 
quence of tinkering with the flues was that the smoke filled the 
breakfast room to such a degree that the glazier was obliged to seek 
another place for his work & the fire was necessarily extinguished." 

6. Ca. 1862, a s described in D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man 
T9T9, p. 50F ~ 

"On a sideboard in the dining room stood rows of bottles and decant- 
er..." 

7. 1891, G.A. Townsend, in "New York Sun" 

"To the left was the ex-President's living room, or double parlor; to 
the right sitting room and dining room." 

8. 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Main Floor Plan--Lindenwa1d " 
"Den." 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Fireboard #87, HSR-FS 

"Waffled" texture of wall from wallpaper (W006), HSR-FS 

Tack marks, HSR 

Secondary decorative treatment, HSR 

Proximity to basement (kitchen, etc.), HSR 



46 



SUMMARY: This room and room 106 were described by Townsend in 1891 
as the "double parlor." This room is connected to 106 through the 
ogee arch and did bear the same wallpeper. The dining/ breakfast 
function, however, is strongly indicatec. in period documents and by 
the room's proximity to the kitchen. 

Room 110- -Stairway 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE 
1 • 1891, G.A. Townsend, as quoted in Collier, 1914, p. 377 

"At the rear, nearly concealed in the side of the hall under a sort 
of alcove, was the stairway, pretty wide and low and long-stepped." 

2. MAVA Photo Files 

Photograph, c. 1930s 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 

Scenic wallpaper and dado in situ , HSR-FS 

Wallpaper (W015) fragments, HSR-FS 

Decorative bracket on right side of arched opening, HSR 

Room 111— Library 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1841, November 19. "Washington Globe," quoting "New York 
Commercia l Advertiser" (Piatt , HRS, p. 64 ) 

"The Ex-President begins the day with a ride of ten or fifteen miles 
on horseback; after breakfast he is engaged with workmen till he is 
tired, and then betakes himself to the library, which he is constant- 
ly enlarging." 

2. 1843, October 19. G. Welles, Journal (LC) 

"Going out he showed us his library, a large & very fine room wery 
well filled with books which, without examining them I thought were 



47 



chiefly law books and state papers. Passing out South westerly, we 
saw the first outlines of his farm..." 

3 • 1 846^_ January 16 [rec a 1 J j ng April 18 45 vi si t) . W.G. Bryan to 
L.C. Draper (WHST 

"I passed some hours in his Library. His collection of books is 
large, & the number of works on all political subjects--essays-- 
tracts--stati sties — various economies--treatises on Government &c &c 
is immense, even for a statesman-- 1 observed, too, that most of them 
were thumbed, the leaves hastily turned down, & the margins often 
covered with notes & references in his own hand. You can form but 
small idea, from this, of the number of political books, & the amount 
of time he must have consumed in examining them. They embraced every 
imaginable subject of public concern, & emanating from the pens, & 
were printed in the language of authors in most civilized countries. 
One side of the room seemed devoted to works of American Authors, ex- 
clusively—You can hardly call to mind a modern production that was 
not on his shelves with a line or two from the author, on the blank 
page, presenting it to his acceptance & regards. These notes in the 
characteristic style of the various writers, I found particularly 
interesting — one wd be couched in brief & truly Republican terms, an- 
other would teem with all the gracious & high sounding epithets of 
Oriental diplomacy--& another--but look at the list of Authors & you 
can fancy what each would naturally say in presenting his favorite 
work to a man like Mr. Van Buren--At about four P.M. we dined--"far- 
ing sumptuously" and I left for the eve. boat at 1/2 past 5.--I must 
not forget to remark that I saw over the mantel piece of the Library 
an engraved likeness of Mr. Clay, & that I saw scattered about the 
room a number of the vilest & funniest caricatures of himself. One, 
I recollect, exhibiting him as a fox hard chased by a pack of Whig 
hounds! !" 

4 - 1846, November 18. MVB to Fr ancis P. Blair (LC-Bl air Family 
£a£ersj~ 

"Martin has promoted your likeness, by taking you from under Miss 
Fanny Elssler & placing you in a fine frame in the Library under Gen- 
eral Jackson & next to your friend Clay — " 



5 • 1848 j_ Ju ly 15. MVB to E. Ant hony (NYPL ) 



"I have received the engraved portrait of Mr. Clay which you have had 
the goodness to present to me. To show you that you do me but jus- 
tice in believing that political difference would not distract from 
the satisfaction with which I would receive this faithful likeness of 
an American Statesman & exquisite work of taste, I need only say that 
a likeness of Mr. Clay has for several years occupied a place in my 
1 ibrary. . . " 



48 



6. 1849, May 30. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 113 ) 

"Bay window in Library inside and outside elevations, section, and 
return of cornice, Single windows of Library etc..." 

7. 1849, September 3. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 114 ) 

"Sept 3rd Smith T Van Buren. Plan of Mr. Van Burens house viz Li- 
brary door jamb of tower doors to 1 in scale and full size." 

8. 1849, October 4. B. McGuire to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 84 ) 

"I have reed your letter on yesterday afternoon, the width of the 
Chimney Breasts are as follows Viz. Nursery: 5 ft 4 in; Library: 5 
ft. 2 5/8 in." 

9. 1849, October 23. T.B. Van Slyck to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 85 ) 

"...I received your favour yesterday with the drawing for the break- 
fast room door and write to inform you that i cannot get a two foot 
six inch door in the opening the Largest size that i can get in is 
two feet the opening is made close to the partition wall of the old 
hall which brings the arcatrave [sic] of the Library door..." 

10. 1850, April 20. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 91 ) 

"Pray hurry on the Library & Hand-rail. Did I understand they were 
to be done by the same hand? I saw a Library designed for Mr. Bar- 
nard in Albany--which pleased me, & only cost $200. It was black 

walnut and plain— but was as much prettier than Mr. 's (in 

14th St.) as Kelly's was before Barnards..." 

11. 1850, May 5. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 91 ) 

"The plans &c enclosed are all right. As to the Library you seem to 
have forgotten our arrangement: which was that you should have the 
plan (when completed) estimated upon by one or two competent persons 
at New York and then let me Know the result, & that the person taking 
the job might also put up the hand-rail on the Tower stairs: & in- 
clude that in his estimate." 

12. 1850, May 13. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 92 ) 

"The estimates for the Library differ so much that I must submit the 
matter to your discretion. If you know & can rely upon the person 
who offers to do the work for $300. of course, you will give it to 
him. Please let me know, in your reply, whether you have so deter- 



49 



mined. The sooner it is completed the better, altho' I suppose the 
contractor will have sufficient inducement for dispatch on his own 
account. 

P.S. How many feet of wire-work did you say? I cannot make out your 
figures. Please tell me also if you can about what the glass for the 
glass door will cost." 

13. 1850, May 17. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 98 ) 

"Estimate of Mason's work $2492. 

Do Carpenter's 2850. 

Do Library (including wire work) 340. 

Do Porch 500. 

Supposed cost of Hand rail to be made by 

the Library Contractor, or some other 

person 50. 



5% com 

Deduct heretofore paid 
Bal.-- 


6232. 
5. 
$ 311.60 

150. 
$ 161.60 



To this should be added the Blk. walnut door and the caps for the 
tower-columns — the latter cost about $15. The former I do not know. 
I have added in the check 75 cts. being 5% on $15. Check. . .$162.35. " 

14. 1850, June 28. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 94 ) 

"I have had a visit from Mr. Halenback [Hollenbeck] who promises to 
be here with his book-cases about the 15th July..." 

15. 1850, July 27. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 95 ) 

"I wish to remind you that the Library man will be here on Monday, 
and that I am without the Porch-plans, on which I wish to have his 
estimate. . ." 

16. 1850, August 14. T.C. Moore to RU (Piatt, HRS, pp. 95-96 ) 

"Please give me the length & width of mesh concluded on for Mr. V 
Burens Secretary & as near as practicable the Size of wire to be made 
of. I called at your office & left word for this & hoped to have 
heard from you on this." 



50 



17. Piatt, HRS, fn. 37, p. 96 

"Van Burens House Cabinet" docketed on reverse side. 

18. 1850, August 22. T.C. Moore to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 96 ) 

"The doors for Mr. Van Burens book case are all done, and subject to 

your directions. I send on herewith for your inspection & hope they 

will please any directions you may send me relative to forwarding 

will be attended to I presume they will not require to be boxed." 

19. 1860, January 18. MVB, Will, Columbia County Courthouse 

"My miscellaneous library is intended to be included in this bequest 
(to STVB) but not my law library, which I bequeath to my son John." 

20. 1867, February. STVB, introduction, to MVB's Inquiry into the 
Origin & Course of Political Parties in the U.S., p. viii 

"The citation from Cicero on the title-page was found on Mr. Van 
Buren's table, in his library, extracted in his own handwriting 
whether only as a terse declaration of the law by the spirit of which 
his pen was guided, or as a possible motto for his complete work is 
not known." 

21. 1891, G.A. Townsend, in "New York Sun" 

"I entered the parlor and through it the library. . .the library is a 
simple room, 25 by 30 feet, with plenty of light, and the tall win- 
dows in white sashes. Van Buren was not a great reader, but he loved 
literary society, and the engraved picture of the authors of America 
is in this room, as if they were welcome here— Cooper, Bryant, Long- 
fellow, Irving, Prescott, Willis, and others." 

22. 1891. P.V.B. Hoes, "New York Times," August 6, 1898, quoted 
by E.P. Hoes, in The Columbia Repository, February 22, 1906 

"Mr. Van Buren spent some money in further beautifying Lindenwold, 
[sic] adding a library on one side, a large addition in the rear, and 
a tower... the beautiful library is turned into a kitchen..." 

23. 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Main Floor P1an--Lindenwald " 
"Library." 



51 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Double arched bay window, HSR 

Brown paint layer, HSR-FS 

Carved yellow marble mantelpiece, HSR 

Woodwork of primary space, HSR 

Faint horizontal markings suggesting furniture 9' high, not directly 
against walls, HSR 

Tack marks on floor, Blaine Cliver, NAHPC 



SUMMARY: The library was an important part of Van Buren's home from 
the time he first occupied Lindenwald in 1841. Its original location 
is not known, although it is presumed to have been in a wing on the 
southwestern side (see G. Welles, Journal) of the house. 

A new library with a bay window was added in 1849-50, and room 111 
is the only room thus corresponding with Richard Upjohn' s Plan Book . 

Also, there is evidence for bookcases along the east, west, and south 
walls of this room. Before moving to Lindenwald, Smith T. Van Buren 
lived at 3 Academy Park in Albany and he admired the black walnut 
library that had been designed for attorney Daniel D. Barnard's home 
at 1 Academy Park. Mr. Barnard's home (now 1 Elk Street), is still 
extant, however, the interior has been completely refurbished and a 
very large bookcase used there by the Bar Association of New York is 
not believed to be original to the building. 

Bookcases designed by Upjohn for Robert Kelly's New York home in 1842 
still exist in two museum collections and their Romanesque style 
would not be inconsistent with the architectural details of room 111. 
These bookcases do not, unfortunately, have the "wire mesh" which is 
documented for the Van Buren bookcases. 



Room 112--Bedroom 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
1. 1849, May 30. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 113 ) 

"Double window of bed room Cornices of hall, nursery bed room and 

bath room. . . " 



52 



2. 1849, October 4. B. McGuire to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 84 ) 

"The Bed room fire place has no projection, the opening of the fire 
place is ft 2 ft. - 5 3/4 [sic]." 

3. 1849, November 22. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 86 ) 

"The flues from the Wash-room, Bed-room, and Bath-room have smoked so 
badly that the walls are entirely black, and the ceiling also of the 
Bed room destroyed " 

4. 1849, December 3. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, pp. 88-89 ) 

"...the damage resulted mainly and in the first instance, from smoke 
caused by a single fire in the wash room. .. returning into the other 
rooms where there were no fires : viz. into the Kitchen thro the open- 
door, and into the Bed-room and the bath-Room thro' their respective 
flues." 

5. 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Main Floor Plan — Lindenwald " 
"School R." 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Wallpaper (W011) fragments, HSR-FS 

Tack holes not visible (matting in room), HSR (interview with 
deProsse/Akers family, July 7, 1981) 

White marble hearth, HSR 

Double window, HSR 

Cornice moulding, HSR 

Secondary woodwork treatment, HSR 

Built-in storage cabinet (late 19th, early 20th century), HSR 



SUMMARY: The HSR notes that "no other space designed by Upjohn suc- 
cumbed to as much fabric alteration and deterioration as this room." 
The original bedroom function, however, is obvious from the combined 
documentary evidence c. 1849 and physical evidence, particularly the 
double window and cornice moulding. As the largest chamber in the 
addition, this bedroom is presumed to have been used by Smith T. Van 
Buren and his second wife. 



53 



Room 113/117— Tower Stair Hall 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1849, November 22. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 86 ) 

"Mr. Vanslyck requests me to say that he will be ready for McGuire 
the last of next week. I have also to say that he omitted to make 
the change at the foot of Tower stair-case by my advice. When I saw 
you in Albany a month or six weeks ago I understood that the first 
flight would be taken down at once & at the expence [sic] of the car- 
penters, to make it accord with the plan. The next time I came here 
I found that this had not been done; altho' it is to be attended to. 
There being work enough to do to get the house enclosed & make it 
habitable, I at once determined that I would suffer the inconvenience 
of a narrow passage at the foot of the stair, rather than give even 
so slight an excuse for further delay, & that nothing already com- 
pleted should be disturbed. I told him therefore to dispense with a 
Post. & to carry the hand-rail around the edge of the lower step as 
it was. " 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Plaster walls & ceiling white-coated & unpainted, HSR 

Floor untreated, HSR 

Segmental door arch into 109, HSR 

SUMMARY: The function of this area as the tower stair hall is obvi- 
ous. 

Ro om 114/115/116 — Bathroom and Dressing Area; Water Closet; Small Hall 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 . 1 849, May 30. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 113) 

"Cornices of hall, nursery bed room and bath room..." 



54 



2 • 1849, October 4. _B_. McGuire to RU (Pia tt, HRS t p. 84) 

"The Shelve of the Bath room Mantle will be of the following Shape 





n 


i* 






3 - 


\/4 


<: 


V 'A" 




r - 


!\ 


\_ 




o>- 


_ ,3 7/\ 


7 


ft 


i r\ 


I 




3 


- 7/? 





...I took the form of the Bath Room Shelve on a Board of 9 in. 1/2 
wide it runs under the Square at One end for that Width. 3 1/4 
inches and On the Other it runs over it 3 7/8 inches...." 

3 • 1849, N ovember 22. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p . 86 ) 

"The flues from the Wash-room, Bed-room, and Bath-room have smoked so 
badly that the walls are entirely black, and the ceiling also of the 
Bed room destroyed . . . . " 

4 • 1849, December 3. STVB to RU (Pi a tt, HRS, pp. 88- 89 ) 

"...the damage resulted mainly and in the first instance, from smoke 
caused by a single fire in the wash room. .. retur ning i nto t he other 
rooms where there wer e no fires : viz. into the Ti tcHenThro the open- 
door, and into the Bed-room and the bath-Room thro' their respective 
flues." 

5. 18 50, January 7 . RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 114) 

"January 7, 1850, Martin Van Buren. Plan for Bath Case to 1 in scale 
and Detail full size." 

6 • 1 938, Fe bruary. V.A. dePros se, "Main Floor Plan--Lin denwald " 

"Bath Room" (114); "Toilet" (115) 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Cream paint with blue pigment particles on walls, HSR-FS 



55 



Sink on E wal 1 , HSR 

Copper-lined wooden cased bathtub in NW corner, HSR 

Marble mantelpiece, HSR 

Secondary woodwork treatment, HSR 

Cornice & plaster ceiling unpainted, HSR 

Unpainted floor, HSR 

Water closet and water supply tank (115) in situ (Wedgwood bowl), HSR 

Oculus window, HSR 



SUMMARY: Physical and documentary evidence are conclusive for the 
bathroom and water closet functions. Since Upjohn's plan for the 
"Bath Case" bears the notation "Martin Van Buren" rather than his 
usual "Smith T. Van Buren" or "S.T. Van Buren," this may mean either 
that the bath was for MVB's primary or exclusive use or that it was 
billed to him because it was not for the exclusive use of Smith's 
household. The latter explanation seems more likely. 



Room 118--Nurse ry 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 • 184 9, May 30. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HR S, p. 113) 
"Cornices of hall, nursery bed room and bath room..." 

2 • 1849, Oc tober 4. B. Mc Guire to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 85 ) 

"I have reed your letter on yesterday afternoon, the width of the 
Chimney Breasts are as follows Viz.: Nursery 5 ft. 4 in; Library 
5 ft. 2 5/8 in... There is a fire place in the Basement under the 
Nursery of 5 ft. - 3 in. Breast." 

3 • 1938, Februar y. V. A. deProsse, "Main Floor P1an --Lindenwal d" 

"Chamber. " 



56 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Wallpaper (W014), HSR-FS 

White marble mantel & cast-iron frontal framing, HSR 

Secondary woodwork treatment, HSR 

Unpainted floor, HSR 

Profile markings on S & W walls of large object with overhanging 
cornice moulding and straight sides, HSR 

Cornice moulding, HSR 



SUMMARY: This room is identified in the HSR as the only other room 
besides the hall, bedroom, and bathroom, having a cornice moulding, 
and thus, according to Upjohn's Plan Book, it must be the nursery. 



Room 119--Entr ance Hal 1 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 • 1849, May 30. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 113 ) 
"Cornices of hall, nursery bed room and bath room..." 

2 - 1849, July 25. RU Plan Book (Piatt, HRS, p. 114 ) 

"Plan hall stairway 1/2 in scale and Bracket to support architrave 
full size." 

3 . 1850, May 5. STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 93 ) 

"You may send me at your convenience also the drawing you mentioned 
for a Gla s s door leading from the old Hall to the new..." 

4 - 19 38, February. V .A. de Prosse, "Main Floor Plan--Lindenwald " 

"Side hall." 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Woodwork design for primary space, HSR 



57 



Register, c. 1854, in E wall, HSR 

Skylight, HSR 

Unfinished floor, "possibly carpeted," HSR 



SUMMARY: This room was obviously an entrance hall from the north 
door to the 1849 addition and its woodwork indicates the hall was 
considered a primary space, although the HSR states "it is not known 
though whether this entrance hall was used primarily by Smith Thomp- 
son Van Buren's family or also as the main entrance for all guests." 

There is no evidence to indicate that the use of the front (east) 
entrance diminished while Van Buren lived at Lindenwald and the front 
door continued to be entered by the visitors who wrote accounts in 
the late nineteenth century. In addition, the construction of the 
elaborate front porch in 1850 would seem to add prominence to the old 
entrance. 



R oom 120— H al lway 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
1 • 1938, February. V.A. d eProsse, "Main Floor Plan--Lindenwald " 
"Passage. " 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Woodwork of secondary space, HSR 

Unpainted floor, HSR 

Room 121 — Priv y 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
1 . 19 38, February. V.A. d eProsse, "Main Floor Plan--Lin d enw ald" 

"Toilet." 



58 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 
Wood-encased seat, HSR 
Unpainted plaster walls, HSR 

Room 122— Closet 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: None. 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

No original shelves or pegs, HSR 

Unpainted floor, HSR 

Room 123— Bedro om 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
1 . 1938 , February. V.A. d eProsse, "Ma in Floor Plan— Lindenwald" 
"Chamber. " 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

No fireplace, HSR 

Woodwork for secondary space, HSR 

Walls whitewashed or wallpapered, HSR 

No cornice moulding, HSR 

No tack marks visible on unpainted floor, HSR 



SUMMARY: The function of this room is not obvious from physical evi- 
dence. The HSR suggests that because of the room's simplicity and 

size, it might have been used as a children's bedroom. Another pos- 
sibility is that it was a bedroom for the governess (Rose Dalton) who 



59 



would have been needed near the children and whose status would not 
compel her to share third floor quarters with the other female house- 
hold servants. The lack of a fireplace and decorative treatment in 
this room also suggests that it was not intended for family use. 



Room 201 — Bed room 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 • 1 841, May 15. MVB to HB (Pia tt, HR S, p. 58) 

"No. 5. Bed Room upstairs — [wallpaper] may be a little more expen- 
sive." 

2. 1 841, May 17. HB to MVB (P iatt, HRS , p. 59) 

"The paper for the upper bedroom, Harriet said she would have an eye 
to her own comfort as she might occasionally be an occupant of the 
room. " 

3 - 1 841, July 11. JVB to MVB (PSU-ADH ) 

"I should like to bring my wife, child, & nurse down to make some 
stay, but cannot remain myself, if you have room for them--she pre- 
fers the back room second story." 

4. 1 938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Second Floor P1an--l_indenwald " 
"Chamber." 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Fireboard #91, HSR-FS 

Wallpaper (W017) fragment behind window casing matches fireboard, 
HSR-FS 

Tack marks on floor, HSR 

Wood mantel identical to Room 210, HSR 

Hot-air register, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



60 



SUMMARY: It is not clear from documentary evidence which bedroom 
(201 or 205) was considered the "upper bedroom" in the 1841 correspon- 
dence. However, 201 is suggested because the wallpaper found in this 
room and on the fireboard is more elaborate than the wallpaper found 
in 205 and the pink and blue floral pattern might have a special ap- 
peal to a feminine eye such as Harriet Butler's or Elizabeth Vander- 
poel Van Buren's. 



Room 205 — Bedroom 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 • 184 1, May 15. MVB to HB (Piatt , HRS, p. 58 ) 

"No. 5. Bed Room upstairs--[wal 1 paper] may be a little more expen- 
sive. " 

2 . 1841, May 17. HB to MVB (Pi att, HRS, p . 59) 

"The paper for the upper bedroom, Harriet said she would have an eye 
to her own comfort as she might occasionally be an occupant of the 
room. " 

3 • 1 843, June 20. ASVB to Mrs . RS (LC- ASVB ) 

"We have had a fire in the sitting room nearly every day and occa- 
sionally even in my bedroom." 

4 - 1843, June 22. ASVB to Mrs. RS (LC-ASVB) 

"I had just written the above & rose to put the portfolio in the 
wardrobe. . . " 

5 - 1843, July 21. ASVB to Mr s. RS (LC-ASV B) 

"...the other day when I asked him (Singleton) where his Ma was--he 
usually points to a picture of Lady Wellesley the Duke of Welling- 
ton's Mother which hangs over our mantel..." 

6. 1843, August 24. ASVB to Mrs. RS (LC-ASVB ) 

"Wary I am of writing you that I am still chained to my sofa yet such 

is the fact by using great caution I was able to be carried down & 

laid on the Hall sofa." 



61 



7 • 1 843, Septembe r 3. ASVB to Mrs. RS (LC-ASVB) 

"I asked them up into my room where Mary Rose Beekman & I were assem- 
bled—although they were so considerate not to sit yery long & I did 
not rise from my sofa I felt it was due to this imprudence I owed the 
relapse. " 

8 • 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, " Sec ond Floor P1an--Li ndenwald " 

"Chamber. " 

PHYSICAL EVIOENCE: 

Fireboard #90, HSR-FS 

Wallpaper (W018) fragment behind door casing, HSR-FS 

Tack marks, 36" on center on floor, HSR 

Wooden mantel with elaborate detailing and extended mantel shelf, HSR 

Hot-air register, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



SUMMARY: The HSR recognizes this room as having finer architectural 
detailing than 201 and thus suggests that the "more expensive" wall- 
paper might have been used here. The wallpapers found in the two 
rooms do not bear this out. 

It is clear from the documentary evidence that Angelica and Abraham 
Van Buren occupied a second floor bedroom during their residence at 
Lindenwald and if John's wife Elizabeth preferred 201, the only other 
room available would have been 205. It is logical that this larger 
and "finer" room would have been occupied by Abraham and Angelica who 
considered Lindenwald home for a number of years. 



Rooms 206/207/208— Upper Hall and Bedroom 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 • 1ML_ May 15. MVB to H B (Piatt, HRS, p. 58 ) 
"This is for the hall upstairs including the temporary Bed Room at 



62 



the end of it. Let the paper be neat but not expensive Something 
like that we first selected for the lower Hall might do." 

2 • 1938, Fe bruar y. V .A. dePr osse, "Se cond Floor Pl an--L indenwald" 

"Chamber" (208) 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Wallpaper (W015) fragments, HSR-FS 

No tack marks visible under varnish, HSR 

"Anse de panier" (basket arch) between 206 and 207, HSR 

Venetian window in east wall of 208, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



SUMMARY: Documentary evidence indicates the functions of these rooms 
in 1841. The use of 208 in later years is not known but logical uses 
would have been a bedroom, perhaps for Angelica and Abraham's chil- 
dren, a dressing room, or a storage area. 



Room 209--Bedro om o f Martin Van Bur en 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1. 1852, Feb ruary 26 . MVB to Mrs. Throop (Princeton Uni versity , 
Throop-Martin PapersT 

"Between you and my niece my chances of becoming a good man are not 
as desparate as I feared they were. Every Evening, I find on retir- 
ing your Book opened for the next morning." 

2 . 1858, June 23. Account of STVB with M.H. Reid (LC -VB) 
"Painting & graining 2 stands for Presidents Room 16t 2.00." 

3 • _1862, July 30. Note by one of VB sons (LC-VB ) 
"Letters & papers found in the drawer of Mr. V.B.'s bed-room table." 



63 



4. 1862. as described in D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and A Man, 1929, 
"p~. 544 

"All through June he remains in his room on the second floor. This 
was the sleeping chamber of Billy Van Ness's father. Two windows 
face the south; and two others catch the rays of the rising sun. On 
days when he is not too weak he sits in an easy chair covered with 
chintz. Against the southern wall, between the valanced windows, 
stands a large wardrobe with a mirror door. The sleigh-bed, of the 
same warm-toned mahogany from which the rest of the furniture is 
fashioned, is flanked on either side by a plain chest of drawers. 
On one of these is an unframed portrait of Silas Wright. It is 
small; and of the type our early artists called a cabinet. On top of 
the other is a Bible. In the center of the windowless west wall 
hangs an illuminated tribute to Jackson. On either side of this 
memento of his friend is a silhouette of Van Buren. These, too, are 
simply framed. A shaving stand occupies a corner. Small rugs, woven 
of vari-colored rags, and three fiddle-back chairs, with seats of 
gray horse-hair, complete the furnishings." 

5. 1898 August 6. P.V.B. Hoes, "New York Times" 

"In his chamber I have seen on the hanging texts some especially 
marked, which, no doubt, she had striven to impress upon his mind and 
heart." 

6 . 1938, February. V.A. deProsse, "Second Floor Plan--Lindenwald " 
"Chamber." 

7. Oral Tradition, HSR 
"Martin Van Buren' s bedroom." 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 

Fireboard #86, HSR-FS 

Wallpaper Fragments (pattern indistinguishable), HSR-FS 

Wooden mantel , HSR 

No tack marks visible, HSR 

Bell system, HSR 



64 



SUMMARY Contemporary sources give no clue to which upstairs bedroom 
the exPresident occupied. Local tradition places him in Room 209 
Lynch, writing in 1929 but without identifying the source of his 
Z ShLn e i dlled inf0 ."« tf0n ' 1nd1cates that ^e room had eastern and 

?han POQ X ?? SUre ' WUh 5 bla u nk WSSt wal1 ' Thl ' s f1ts R oom 205 beUer 
than 209 if one regards the front of the house as facing south 
rather than east as it is now designated (it actually faces south- 
east, hence the problem). In the absence of cone usive evidence 
however the traditional designation of Room 209 as he room where 
Martin Van Buren slept will be retained. 

Ropjn_210--Be droom of Martin Van Buren. Jr. 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 ' 1M1. ^y 15. MVB to HB (Piatt. HRS. p. 58) 

"No. 4. Martin's Bed Room neat but cheap [wallpaper]." 

2 - JM L. May 17. HB to MVB (Piatt, HRS. p. 59) 

"That for Martin's room 5/ is Miss Butler's rhm>o a c», A a<a 
shrink from the responsibl ityThere^is certalnlf nithlJg tVt VfJ 
the colors & to an invalid it will be rather quieting to the news! 1 

3 ' jS^ Jovember 18. MVB to FPB (LC-Blair Family Papers) 

Fann^'n^/rni^ y0Ur V kene "* b * ^king you from under Miss 
Fanny Elssler & placing you in a fine frame in the Library Unter Gen- 
eral Jackson & next to your friend Clay" 

4 - jMS^Jjove inber 22. STVB to RU (Piatt. HRS, p. 87) 

dlrect^^o SH^JL i° rth S I d V° f u the att1ck [S1 ' C] & one wh ^ you 
directed to be made longer to light the passage next to my brother's 

Siih^'riiis,:^' altho ' there was enough time to ha - d °- 

5 - IgM^ebruary. V.A_ L _dePro sse, "Second Floo r Plan-Lindenwald" 
"Chamber." 

6. Oral Tradition, HSR 
"Martin Van Buren, Jr.'s bedroom." 



65 



PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 
Fireboard #89, HSR-FS 

No wallpaper found on walls, HSR-FS 

Tack marks in east-west direction 36" apart, HSR 

Wooden mantel , HSR 

Bay window and 2 semi-circular arch windows, HSR 



SUMMARY: The HSR states: "Oral history has established this room as 
Martin Van Buren, Jr.'s bedroom." Smith Thompson Van Buren's letter 
of November 22, 1849, to Upjohn confirms this use. 



Room 211--Passage 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 

1 • 1849, November 22 . STVB to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 87 ) 

"The window on the North side of the attick [sic] & one which you 
directed to be made longer to light the passage next to my brother's 
bed-room, have been left, altho' there was enough time to have done 
all these small jobs. . . " 

2 • 1938, Februar y. V.A. de Prosse, "Second Floor Plan — Lindenwal d' 

"Passage." 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: 
Lancet window, HSR 
Woodwork for secondary space 



SUMMARY: Physical and documentary evidence are conclusive on the 
function of this room as the "passage." 



66 



Room ?? 7- -Storeroom 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
1 • 1 8 1Ll. MaLlZ^__iiB_to_MVB_ _[Pla_tt ,_HRS ,_p_.__60) 

"...I am glad to hear from Smith that your store room is made It 
will need a good lock & the key always in the hands of a trusty per- 
son-Then you will find it a \/ery good plan to have purchased on a 
magnificent scale " 



SUMMARY: There j is no further documentary or physical evidence to 
indicate where this room was located. 



R oom ???-- Billiard Room 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: 
l - 1849, October 4. B. McGuire to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 85 ) 

"I would wish to know if the Billiard Room is going to be laid out 
according to the plans, as I will have done here in two Weeks, and 
Mr. Vanslyck Says he knows nothing about it." 

SUMMARY: There is no further documentary or physical evidence to 
indicate that such a room was ever completed. 



67 



EVIDENCE OF FURNISHINGS, 1841-1862 

Introduction 

Martin Van Buren occupied numerous different residences throughout 
his seventy-nine years, but only one, Lindenwald, did he own, devel- 
op, and fully enjoy as his permanent home. Since relatively little 
documentary evidence exists for furnishings at Lindenwald during the 
historic period (1841-1862), it was necessary to look at Van Buren's 
furnishing purchases and practices in the preceding twenty-five years 
to gain insight into his furnishing tastes and habits. 

The first reference to furnishings is in a letter Van Buren wrote to 
his friend and law partner, Benjamin F. Butler, on June 18, 1816, 
requesting Butler to assist him in the purchase of furniture in New 
York. The furniture was to be used in State Senator and Attorney 
General Van Buren's Albany residence. Butler promptly obliged by 
acquiring floor covering from W.W. & T.L. Chester, and a sideboard 
from an unnamed source. 

This early reference is significant because it establishes a prece- 
dent, which becomes a pattern, for making furniture purchases in New 
York, and for enlisting the aid of other persons in the decisions and 
transactions. Further, Butler's July 31 reply reveals that exagger- 
ated accounts of Van Buren's extravagance plagued him even at this 

3 
yery early point in his career: 

There have arrived here during the last week, via 
Hudson , I understand, several reports of the splen- 
dor of your Albany establishment. They say your 
sideboard cost $1100, ("How the world is given to 
lying.") 



68 



Although Van Buren had been married for nine years to Hannah Hoes, 
his wife apparently did not participate in the furnishing arrange- 
ments, possibly because she was expecting their fifth child, deliv- 
ered in Hudson the following January. Two years later, in 1819, Mrs. 
Van Buren died in Albany and only a miniature portrait and some per- 
sonal accessories survive to lend insufficient clues to her personal- 
ity and relationship with her husband. 

Van Buren was elected to the United States Senate in 1821 and again 
in 1827 and he occupied a number of hotels and boarding houses in 
Washington, D.C., while maintaining an Albany residence. Van Buren 
returned to Albany as the newly elected governor in December 1828, 
but held that office for only three months, resigning to accept Pres- 
ident Jackson's offer of a cabinet post as Secretary of State. 

In April 1829 and in the ensuing six months, the greatest volume of 
correspondence dealing with furnishings was produced as Van Buren 
disposed of his house and numerous furnishings in Albany and pur- 
chased new furnishings for his Washington residence. John Van Buren 
was charged with the sale or shipment of the old furnishings and was 
assisted in the selection of new Items by Mr. and Mrs. James A. Ham- 
ilton and Madame Huygens. Van Buren also sought assistance from Mrs. 

4 
Louis McLane and Mrs. William Rives in Washington. 

After packing and sending the unsold furnishings, John Van Buren ad- 
vised: "If you furnish your house it can be done 50 per ct cheaper 

5 
here [New York] than any where else." Van Buren did order many 

items from New York, including chandeliers, pier glasses, carpets, 
and curtains, and three sets of chairs for the receiving, drawing, 
and dining rooms. A sideboard, center table, and sofa, made by a 
"very ingenious man who works at the capitol," were procured in Wash- 
ington. 



69 



Van Buren lived comfortably in Washington, as he wrote to Hamilton in 
September 1830: "I am seated in my lounge chair from which & its 
vicinity I shall not soon depart." This contentment was, however, 
disrupted nine months later when Van Buren resigned his cabinet post 
in the wake of the "Eaton Affair." Following his resignation in May 
1831, Van Buren held an auction and sometime that year he also sold 
some silver and other furnishings to President Jackson for his Ten- 

o 

nessee home, The Hermitage. 



Van Buren was appointed minister to Great Britain in June and sailed 
for England in August. Although his nomination as minister was even- 
tually rejected by the Senate, Van Buren remained in Europe until 
June 1832, traveling with his friend Washington Irving. In the 
interim, Van Buren had been nominated for Vice President on the Demo- 
cratic ticket headed by Jackson. 

President Jackson was reelected and Van Buren began his term as Vice 

President in March 1833. A new residence was again in order and Van 

9 
Buren 's son Abraham helped in the preparations: 

I have had the rooms papered so as to enable you, at 
your pleasure, to convert either the lower or the 
upper one, of those spoken of in my last, into a 
Dining Room. 

Secretary of Legation Aaron Vail wrote from London in September that 
he had purchased chintz for curtains for Van Buren's house, but he 
cautioned : 

...if I am not so lucky as to have met your views, 
you will, I hope recollect that your instructions 
were yevy laconic and left nearly all to my discre- 
tion — as related to quantity I have had to be guided 
by the knowledge of others. The Bill is enclosed-- 
It is more than I thought it would be. Your L15 
will go toward satisfying it--the balance you may, 
if you like, pay to my mother at your convenience. 



70 



Although the instructions were sometimes terse, the correspondence 

from 1816 to 1833 suggests that Van Buren did take a great interest 

in furnishing his homes comfortably, fashionably, and as economically 
as possible. 

When Van Buren acceeded to the Presidency in March 1837, presumably 
most of his possessions were put into storage as he moved into the 
White House. At the White House, Van Buren enjoyed, according to 
Pennsylvania Congressman Charles Ogle, opulence unparalleled in the 
United States. Ogle's virulent attack, "On the Regal Splendor of the 
President's Palace," delivered in the House of Representatives on 
April 14, 1840, was actually calculated Whig campaign rhetoric used 

to paint Van Buren as a vain aristocrat squandering the people's 

11 
money: 

...no former Chief Magistrate ever acted upon the 
principle adopted by the present incumbent, of 
spending the money of the People with a lavish hand , 
and at the same time, saving his own with sordid 

parsimony And I put it... to the free citizens of 

this country, whose servant the President is to say 
whether. . .they are disposed to maintain for his pri- 
vate accommodation, A ROYAL ESTABLISHMENT at the 
cost of the nation. Will they longer feel inclined 
to support their chief servant in a PALACE as splen - 
did as that of the Caesars, and as ric h ly adorned as 
the proudest Asiatic mansions ? 

The following day, Levi Lincoln, former Chairman of the Committee on 
Public Buildings and Grounds, refuted the charges. Although Lincoln 
was also a Whig and opposed to Van Buren, he denounced Ogle's blatant 
distortion of the facts. Lincoln stated that the appropriations had 

not been requested by Van Buren, but had been granted by Congress as 

12 
had been customary since the second presidential administration: 

...for a period of nearly three years no appropria- 
tion, to my knowledge, had been made at the request 



71 



of the President. . .and that on one occasion, when 
the President had been referred to, as to the need 
of a proposed appropriation, he had declined ex- 
pressing any opinion or wish upon the subject. .. .And 
who is the thief? The Congress of the United 
States, the Representatives of the people, in suc- 
cession, through a series of more than forty years. 
These are the men who, by making the appropriations, 
in the sentiment of the member from Pennsylvania, 
PLUNDERED THE TREASURY AND ROBBED THEIR CONSTITU- 
ENTS! 



Lincoln also pointed out that, although the expenditures during Van 
Buren's term amounted to almost $20,000, the sum was less than in 
previous administrations. 

13 

As for the extravagance, Lincoln proclaimed: 

...the furniture appears neither too rich nor too 
abundant for the size and magnificence of the man- 
sion nor too good for the use of the first represen- 
tative officer of a free and sovereign people. .. .His 
guests are the guests of the people. The Executive 

Mansion is the place for the reception The 

carpets and the curtains, the candlesticks and the 
candelabras, the ottomans and the divans, the 
tables, mahogany and marble, the tabourets. . .they 
may be names of startling sound to an unpractised 
ear, but they are things of use and no uncommon 
appearance in many a private parlor. 

Lincoln's remarks were published in the Extra Globe on August 5, 
1840; however, they had little effect upon the voting public who 
swept Van Buren out of office in November. Even after Van Buren left 

office, he was vilified by his enemies and accused of stealing furni- 

14 
ture from the White House. Such a charge was strongly denied: 

...there is no truth in the "statement made by 
respectable men... who were recently at Washington 
attending the inauguration, that the furniture 



72 



of the Chambers of the President's were entirely 
stripped and the articles carried off by the late 
President Van Buren, prior to the 4th of March." ... 
It is true... that a number of boxes were sent on to 
New York from the President's House, but these boxes 
contained furniture, glass, books, documents, pa- 
pers, wines, etc., which belonged to Mr. Van Buren 
and his son Major Van Buren. 

It is known to many, that several of our Chief Mag- 
istrates have from time to time, during their presi- 
dential term, purchased articles of furniture for 
their own use, which they have taken with them, when 
they have retired from public life. Mr. Van Buren 
was a housekeeper in Washington for several years 
and had collected articles of furniture for his own 
use as had his son Maj. Van Buren. He had also an 
extensive library and numerous documents and papers, 
and a large stock of wines. 



An example of furnishings acquired during Van Buren's term but in- 
tended for personal use would be the large quantity of glassware 
ordered by John Van Buren from the Davenport Company in England. 

Although the order was addressed "for the President's House," Van 

15 
Buren himself paid the bill, albeit two and one-half years later! 

In the spring of 1839, two years into his term, President Van Buren 
purchased the Van Ness estate in Kinderhook, New York. Sparse fur- 
nishings were in the old mansion in July when Van Buren and his fam- 
ily dined there for the first time: 

The furniture of the room was precisely this: three 
little tables of different heights placed under as 
many table cloths & extended in a line across the 
room--ll chairs and one side table! 



Preparations for making the grounds presentable and the mansion hab- 
itable began almost immediately, but when it became clear that Van 
Buren had been defeated in his bid for reelection in 1840, the re- 



73 



pairs, decorating, and furnishing commenced in earnest. On his way 
from Washington to Kinderhook in the spring of 1841, Van Buren spent 
a week or more in New York making furniture purchases. He ordered 
mantelpieces from the marble yard of Fisher and Boyd in the Bowery, 
but there is no mention of particular New York cabinetmakers. 

Wallpaper was ordered from the firm of Pares and Faye, who interest- 

18 
ingly enough, had supplied wallpaper for the White House in 1837. 

As usual, Van Buren was assisted by family and friends, primarily son 
John, daughter-in-law Angelica, and Mrs. Benjamin F. Butler, in the 
selection and purchase of articles ranging from bedding to fireboards 

10 

and tablecloths to teapots. - Van Buren finally moved into Linden- 

wald in June 1841, although expenditures for "improvements & furni- 

20 
ture" and "carpets & curtains" continued during the next few years. 

In the course of his career and travels, Van Buren had become accus- 
tomed to fine food, clothing, and furniture. English glassware, 

French wallpaper, and French china were among the luxuries of the ex- 

21 

President's "richly but plainly furnished" home. Of the latter, he 

was particularly fond and he expressed great dismay at the destruc- 
tion of the "principal part of a yery beautiful tea & breakfast set 
which I valued above everything in the House. So much so that I have 
actually sent to Paris to have former trespasses repaired by addi- 
tions of the same articles which 1 have never been able to find any- 

22 
where except in the President s House." 

"In regard to Paintings," Van Buren freely admitted that he did not 

possess "cultivated tastes," but he did share his decorating philoso- 

23 
phy with Gorham Worth with reference to a mutual friend: 

I certainly would not be of the number who would 
advise him to have anything like a Gallery of Paint- 
ings as which many people of little or no taste take 



7 A 



to show off their magnificence. But as many scat- 
tering pictures as the House ought to contain to 
give harmony to the establishment he will if he does 
not already possess them, have to buy. 



Van Buren's own preference seemed to be for portraits of statesmen he 
admired, be they political friend such as Andrew Jackson, or foe like 
Henry Clay. 

Lindenwald under Van Buren's "regime" was both a "noble residence" 
and a "charming retreat," furnished nonetheless with an emphasis on 
comfort and an eye to economy. After all, the ex-President had in- 
structed that the wallpapers be "neat but not expensive" in some of 
the halls and bedrooms. With luxuries here and penny-saving there, 

Van Buren could proudly claim: "We have more over succeeded in mak- 

24 
ing Lindenwald so comfortable, that we are loathe to leave it." 



Simple elegance, not ostentation, was the rule, or as Frank Ellis 

25 
stated in his History of Columbia County: 

Interiorly there was a sense of comfort and plenty, 
without extravagant ornamentation. It was a home 
where a refined American gentleman might entertain 
the cultured and the great of all lands without re- 
moving himself from the presence of his peers — the 
common citizen. 



Major structural alterations to Lindenwald in 1849-50 apparently did 
not spark furnishings changes in the original portion of the house, 
since the addition was designed to serve as an "apartment" for Smith 
Thompson Van Buren and his family without encroaching upon the elder 
Van Buren's quarters. By October 1849, Smith had removed his furni- 
ture into Lindenwald, but, unfortunately, there is no documentation 

relating to the furnishings of the addition in Smith's correspondence 
with Richard Upjohn, which details room functions, architectural mat- 



75 



ters, and construction concerns. Bookcases for the new library, 
though, were part of the architect's responsibility and probably re- 
sembled the ones Upjohn had previously designed for Robert Kelly's 
New York home in 1842, or for a Mr. Barnard's Albany residence, which 
Smith seemed to prefer. 

For the next twelve years, there is but one reference to furnishings 
at Lindenwald. An account of Smith T. Van Buren with M.H. Reid, 
c. 1858-59, includes among supplies for repairs to the house, car- 
riage, and family sleigh, "copal varnish" for an extension table and 
chairs, and "painting and graining two stands for the President's 
Room. " 

The period from the ex-President's death in 1862 until the establish- 
ment of Martin Van Buren National Historic Site in 1974 also had to 
be examined for evidence of the disposition of Lindenwald's furnish- 
ings. Some items of particular value and significance were specifi- 
cally mentioned in Van Buren's will; however, a complete inventory of 
the contents of the mansion has not been found. 

Approximately two years after Van Buren died and after the property 
had passed out of family hands, an auction was held at Lindenwald, 

at which Kinderhook resident Aaron Vanderpoel purchased a "good deal" 

28 
of the furniture. An auction of the Vandi 

1940 further scattered the Van Buren pieces. 



28 
of the furniture. An auction of the Vanderpoel -Newcomer estate in 



Fortunately, much of the furniture did remain in Lindenwald, as 
George A. Townsend noted in his 1891 article in the New York Sun and 
those items formed an integral part of the household that the Birney- 
deProsse family enjoyed from 1917 to 1957. During their 40-year 
occupancy, an inventory of the "Van Buren" furnishings was prepared 



76 



by Mrs. C.B. deProsse. This inventory, included as an appendix in 
Melvin Weig's 1936 report, "Lindenwald--The President Martin Van 
Buren Homestead," has been very helpful in identifying original 
furnishings. 

Although Mrs. deProsse and her family sold some items and took other 
cherished Van Buren pieces with them when they sold the house to 
antique dealer Ken Campbell, the bulk of the Van Buren furnishings 
were left behind. In 1975, shortly after the National Park Service 
acquired Lindenwald from Campbell, the National Parks Foundation and 
Hyde Park Historical Association purchased the remaining Van Buren- 
associated furnishings for Martin Van Buren National Historic Site. 

The collection of the Site now includes approximately 100 pieces of 
furniture and 200 other items associated with Martin Van Buren or 
Lindenwald. Documentary research and oral history have provided 
trails to approximately 350 other items. It is hoped that the publi- 
cation of this historic furnishings report will lead to the identifi- 
cation and acquisition of additional original furnishings for a 
successful restoration of Lindenwald, the "pleasant seat" where "in 

delightful quietude, the retired Chief Magistrate of the republic 

29 
spent the evening of his days." 



77 



Footnotes 



1. MVB to BFB, June 18, 1816, NYSL 

2. BFB to MVB, July 31, 1816, NYSL 

3. Ibid. 



4. JVB to MVB, April 18, 1829 and May 3, 1929, PSU-ADH; MVB 
to James A. Hamilton, July 13, 1829, August 15, 1829, and September 
8, 1829, Martin Van Buren Presidential Papers, NYPL. 



5. JVB to MVB, May 3, 1829, PSU-ADH. 

6. MVB to JAH, July 13, 1829, MVB Papers, NYPL. 

7. MVB to JAH, September 10, 1830, MVB Papers, NYPL. 



8. A. Polhemus to Paul Rapelya, May 26, 1831, Joseph Downs 
Mss. Coll. #7467, Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum; Account 
book of Andrew Jackson, 1831, The Hermitage, Hermitage, Tennessee. 



9. AVB to MVB, June 3, 1833, LC-VB. 
10. Aaron Vail to MVB, September 14, 1833, LC-VB, 



11. [Charles Ogle], "Speech of Mr. Ogle of Pennsylvania on 
the Regal Splendor of the President's Palace," April 14, 1840, Bos- 
ton: Weeks, Jordon Co., 1840. 



12. [Levi Lincoln], "Speech of Mr. Lincoln," The Extra Globe , 
Vol. 6, no. 8, August 5, 1840, Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, 
1840 (MAVA #813). 



13. Ibid 



78 



14. R.H. Hammond, March 29, 1841, National Archives, Public 
Buildings & Grounds. 



15. Invoice for MVB from Davenport Company, June 25, 1841, 
LC-VB; William Davenport to JVB, October 20, 1841, LC-VB; MVB to 
George Newbold, December 3, 1841, PSb'-ADH. 



16. STVB to ASVB, July 30, 1839, MAVA #714. 



17. William Marcy to Prosper Wetmore, March 12, 1841, Marcy 
Papers, LC; MVB to Andrew Jackson Donelson, April 28, 1841, AJD Pa- 
pers, LC. 

18. MVB to Harriet Butler, May 15, 1841, Joseph Downs Mss. 
and Microfilm Collection, Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum, as 
quoted in John Piatt, HRS, pp. 58-59; HB to MVB, May 17, 1841; Van 
Buren Papers, Columbia County Historical Society, as quoted in Piatt, 
HRS, pp. 59-60; "Furniture of the President's House," April 1, 1842, 
Washington, D.C.: House of Representatives, pps. 21-22 (MAVA #248). 

19. HB to MVB, May 17, 1841 and June 5, 1841, Van Buren Pa- 
pers, Columbia County Historical Society; ASVB to Mrs. Richard Sin- 
gleton, November 4 and November 11, 1840, LC-ASVB; JVB to MVB, July 
26 and July 30, 1841, PSU-ADH. 



20. "Probable Expenses," May 1842-January 1843, and "Expenses 
and Disbursements," April 1, 1844-April 1, 1845, LC-VB. 



21. William G. Bryan to Lyman C. Draper, January 16, 1846, 
Wisconsin Historical Society. 



22. MVB to James K. Paulding, January 4, 1845, Morristown 
National Historical Park. 



23. MVB to Gorham Worth, April 25, 1850, LC-VB, 



79 



24. STVB to ASVB, LC-ASVB; William G. Bryan to Lyman C. Drap- 
er, WHS; STVB to William Marcy, July 21, 1841, Morristown National 
Historical Park; MVB to HB, May 15, 1841, Van Buren Papers, Columbia 
County Historical Society; MVB to Joel D. Poinsett, December 13, 
1842, Morristown National Historical Park. 



25. Frank Ellis, History of Colu mb ia C ounty, Philadelphia 
Everts & Ensign, 1878. 



26. T.B. Van Slyke to Richard Upjohn, October 23, 1849, Rich- 
ard and Richard M. Upjohn Papers, NYPL, as quoted in Piatt, HRS, 
p. 85; STVB to Richard Upjohn, April 20, 1850, quoted in Piatt, HRS, 
p. 91. 



27. Account of STVB with M.H. Reid, 1858-59, LC-VB. 

28. George A. Townsend, New York Sun, 1891. 

29. Benson J. Lossing, The Hudson, 1866, Winterthur Museum, 



80 



General Furnishings References 

The following documentary references include contemporary comments on 
Van Buren's tastes, descriptions of Lindenwald, and documents refer- 
ring to more than a single type of furnishings. These are cross- 
referenced under the various furnishing categories in the following 
sections of this report. 



1. 1816, June 18. MVB to BFB (A) (LC ) 

"You will be of much more service to me in New York than the amount 
of your expenses, I want you to assist me in the purchase of furni- 
ture." 

1816, July 31. BFB (NY) to MVB (A) (NYSL ) 

"There have arrived here during the last week, via Hudson , I under- 
stand, several reports of the splendor of your Albany establishment." 

2. 1829, April 14. Daily Albany Argus 

PUBLIC SALE 

BY STILWELL, MORGAN & CO. 

Auction and Commission, and wholesale Dry Goods 

Merchantsstore No. 49 Statestreet 

THIS MORNING at 10 o'clock 

FURNITURE AT AUCTION 

"Stilwell, Morgan & Co. will sell on Tuesday, the 14th inst. at 10 
o'clock, the whole of the household furniture of M. Van Buren, Esq., 
consisting of elegant mahogany side board with marble slab top, 
dining, breakfast, tea and card tables, bureaus, secretaries, sofas, 
chandeliers, mirrors, looking glasses, mantle ornaments, mantle time 
piece, astoral and mantle piece, lamps, mahogeny and maple chairs, 
elegant Brussels carpets, rugs, floor matting, beds, bedding, bed- 
steads, window curtains, silver table and tea spoons, tea pot, sugar 
and cream cupts, cut glass decanters, wines, tumblers, china dining, 
breakfast and tea sets, hall stove and pipe, hall lamps, tables &c. 
Together with the kitchen furniture. 

"The above will be sold at the house lately occupied by Mr. Van 
Buren, No. 92 Statestreet, where the furniture may be examined by 
those who wish to purchase, on Monday until 2 o'clock P.M. 

"Terms. Under $50, cash; over $50, 4 mos. for approved endorsed 
notes payable at Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank." 



81 



3 • 182 9, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH ) 

"I send by this mail some account of the things unsold together with 
the highest bids upon each— 

highest bid 

One Sideboard & cellarette-- $65 

One Set dining tables — no bid upon 

One Pair mirrors— Do Do 

one pair mantel Lamps-- $45 

Sofa (Best) $44 

Tea table (Best)— $21 

Card tables— $20 each 

Window curtains-- $25 a window 

Since the sale Mr. Croswell has taken one pair for 
$80 & John the old Sofa for $22.50— 

highest bid 
The Best Bedstead (yours) $17 

All the linen, all the knives, forks & spoons were reserved without 
offering... I expect some order about sending the furniture provided 
I cannot sell it at private sale— Where will you stow it this summer? 
--had I not better sell it for what it will fetch..." 

4 - 1829, May 3. JVB (NY) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH ) 

"All the things which remain unsold were carefully packed & put on 
board of a tow boat Friday morning & arrived here on Saturday about 
12. They were then carted immediately across to the packet & safely 
put on board & are now on their way to Washington — ... 
N.B. If you furnish your house it can be done 50 per ct cheaper here 
than any where else— Write about it in your next — " 

5. 1829, July 13. MV B (W) t o JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 

"John will be with you soon & will in conjunction with Mrs. Hamilton 
etc. purchase my furniture..." 

6 - 1829, August 15 . MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 

"I fear my dr Sir I shall give you too much trouble about my affairs 
...I wish Eliza would take the trouble to let me know from time to 
time (if John is not with you) which purchases are needed so that I 
do not interfere here." 



82 



7. 1829, September 8. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 

"...I leave all to the Ladies yourself & John... I think the lamps of 
$115 will do & I was favorably inclined to the first round clock at 
sound price. I wish you would ask John to send it to me through 
a draft on the Bank... as I am making purchases here & in want of 
funds." 

8. 1829, October 15. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 
"Now for business. The last box that came from Gardners..." 

9. 1831, May 26. A. Polhemus (FtW) to P. Rapelya (NY) (Winter - 
thur Museum, Downs Mss. #7467) 

"On Saturday we intend going to Montgomery from there to Washington 
to attend Mr. Van Beurens Auction if the President was offer 'd I 
should become a purchaser, but I expect to have an introduction..." 

10. 1831 Account Book, Andrew Jackson, The Hermitage 

"Furniture of Mr. V Buren — 

Bought For the Hermitage — 

1831. Also Some articles of furniture 

to be procured in Phil 

For the Hermitage-- 
B A (To wit) 8 dozen of Silver knives 
1 4 Silver dishes with Tops, Silver 
U r 4 Silver Wine coolers — 
g e 2 Bronze Mantle Lamps-- 
h a & one Sofa Presented to the 
t d President by M V Buren/ 
y 2 [cases or casks ?] Wine-- 

The Whole amount to $600.00 

Furniture Presented A J 

2 Large Pitchers with Presdt likness 

name (Likeness) 
2 Decanters of Glass--Small 
2 China Pitchers with A. P name upon them" 



11. 1839, July 30. STVB (A) to ASVB (Europe), MAVA #714 

At Kleinood "The furniture of the room was precisely this: three lit- 
tle tables of different heights placed under as many table cloths & 
extended in a line across the room — 11 chairs and one side table!" 



83 



11a. n.d. (c.1840). MVB Papers (LC) 

"Broom, Meat, Plates, Chambers, Buttons, Silk, Baize." 

12. 1840, April 14. Charles Ogle (W), copy in MAVA files 

"Speech of Mr. Ogle of Pennsylvania on the Regal Splendor of the 
President's Palace," see p. 71, above. 

13. 1840, August 5. Levi Lincoln, Extra Globe #8, Vol. 6, pub - 
lished by Blair & Rives (W), MAVA #813 

"Speech of Mr. Lincoln," see pp. 71-2, above. 

14. 1841, March 12. W. Marcy to P. Wetmore (LC-Marcy Papers ) 

"The Ex-Pres. . .informed me he should stop at several places on his 
way to N.Y. & should be a week or more in the City of N.Y. He has to 
buy furniture for his Kinderhook mansion." 

1 5 . 1841, March 29. R.H. Hammond (W), Nat. Arch., Int. Pub. 
Bldgs. & Grnds 3016 (Let. Rec'd Vol 30 ) 

"...there is no truth in the 'statement. . .that the furniture of the 
Chambers of the President's House were entirely stripped and the 
articles carried off by the late President Van Buren prior to the 4th 
of March '....It is true... that a number of boxes were sent on to New 
York from the President's House, but these boxes contained furniture, 
glass, books, documents, papers, wines etc., which belonged to Mr. 
Van Buren & his son Major Van Buren.... Mr. Van Buren was a house- 
keeper in Washington for several years & had collected articles of 
furniture for his own use as had his son Major Van Buren.... He had 
also an extensive library & numerous documents & papers & a large 
stock of wines." 

16. 1841, April 28. MVB (NY) to AJD (LC-AJD Papers ) 

"I am fearful that I spoke so indifferently about the $800 as to in- 
duce you to believe it altogether unimportant whether I rec'd it or 
not. Indeed I substantially so regarded it when I wrote, but having 
been now for several weeks in the hands of House furnishers & House 
repairers & Gardeners etc. etc., I find that the payment of that 
amount to my credit in the Bank of America in that city in the course 
of a few weeks would be very convenient." 

17. 1842, April 1. 27th Congress, 2nd Sess ion, H. of R. (W), 
MAVA #248 

"Furniture of the President's House," for references to items pur- 
chased during Van Buren administration. 

18. 1842, May-1843, January. "Probable Expenses" MVB (LC-V B) 
"Improvements & furni ture--$200.00." 



84 



1 9 . 1844, June 10. Account of MVB with L.S. Rexford (LC-VB ) 

"Martin Van Buren to L S Rexford 

1842 Dec 28th To 4 Bladed Knife 8/ 1.00 

1843 Apr 15 Rep. Cork Screw 5/ .38 
June 6 Pr. Brass Candlesticks 16/ 2.00 

Rep. Umbrella do Teapot 3/4 3/6 44 

Aug 25 Rep. Umbrella 37 

Sept 18 do for MVB Jun. 

" Oct 16 Lunet glass do 

Nov 27 Rep Fish Knife 2/- Forks 

Dec 30 Rep jewel for MVB Jun. 

1844 Jan 3 Rep Cruet stand 

" 26 do Spectacles 

Feb 6 do Teapot 

21 Watch Rep 4/ Cutting Pa1 

Pencil points 6 for AVBr. 
Mar 11 Mend pencil 2/ points 

T7.63 
Reed payt L S Rexford" 

20. 1 844, April 1-1845, April 1. "Expenses & Disbursements" MVB 
TLC-VB) 

Mostly provisions but including "carpets & curtains." ($154.73) 

2 1 • 1845, November 23. MVB (L ) to Major AVB (NY) , MAVA #7 00 

List of articles (purchased or to be purchased?). [The list is writ- 
ten on one edge (address side) of a letter sheet, from MVB to Major 
Abraham Van Buren, c/o B.F. Butler, New York, post marked November 
23, 1845. The list is not in MVB's hand.] 



[sh/d] 



1/6 


19 


4/ 


50 


& Tea Be 


11 3/5/ 


1/ 


12 


2/ 


25 


1/11 


19 


2/ 


25 


terns 2/ 


8 


6/6 




2/4 


50 



18 


Table 


24 


do 


18 


Gridiron 


12 


Fire iron Nursery 


36 


Bedroom do 


4 


Oyster gridiron 


22 


Dutch ovens 


9 


Potato steamer 


6-6 


Toaster 


19 


Tea kettle 


28 


Fish kettle 



85 



28 


Ham do 


9 


Soup do 


9 


Coal scuttle 


2 


Bed screw 


10 


4 stewpans 


6 


trivet 


14 


2 sets smoothing iron 


2-6 


do stand 


6-6 


Frying pans 


5-6 


Firecarrier 


8 


axe 


6-6 


Hatchet 




Meat saw 


4 


sugar nippers 


16-6 


mats 


7 


Steel yards 



312 
27 


- 6 

- 6 


340 


42 


- 6 



42 sh 6d 



22 • 1846, January 16. W.G. Bryan (Batavi a) to L.C. Dra per, 
TWisconsin Historical Society ) 

"The house is richly but plainly furnished." 

2 3 • 1849, October 23. T.B. Van Slyc k to R. Upjohn (NY PL-RM Upjohn 

Papers as quot ed in Pi att, H RS, p. 85 ) 

"We have got the work so far advanced that Mr. Van Buren as [sic] 
moved is [sic] furniture into the house." 

24. 1858-1859. A ccount of STVB with M.H. Reid (LC-VB ) 

"March 30 1 qrt of Copal Varnish for extension table 8/ $1.00 
Labour of Self Varnishing extension table 6/ .75 

(April 30) 1 qrt Copal Varnish For Chairs 8/ 1/2 Day 1. 

2 5 • 1860, January 18. MVB Will, Columbia Co unty C ourthouse, Hud- 
son, New York 

Extracts relating to objects at Lindenwald. 

"Thirdly. In consideration of advances which I have made to my sons 
Abraham & John, whilst none have been made to my son Smith Thompson, 
I bequeath to the latter all my personal chatties & effects, except- 
ing therefrom all the debts that may be due to me, and stocks that I 
may own at my death, and also my wine & stock on my farm. My mis- 
cellaneous library is intended to be included in this bequest, but 
not my law library, which I bequeath to my son John. 

86 



Fourthly. I give to my grandson Singleton Van Buren a gold snuff 
Box, presented to me with the Freedom of the City, by the corporation 
of the City of New York, and to my grandson Martin son of Abraham the 
marble bust made of me by Powers, which I previously presented to his 
mother, & now transfer to the son by her direction. I give to my 
grandson Martin son of my son Smith Thompson a silver pitcher, pre- 
sented to me, some years since by my old & always sincere friend Ben- 
jamin F. Butler. 

Fifthly, I direct my executors to expend four hundred dollars, or so 

much thereof as may be necessary, in obtaining a copy of the bust of 

me by Powers, which copy I give to my grandson Edward Livingston Van 
Buren. 

Lastly. The three pieces of plate last presented to me by my de- 
ceased friend Benjamin F. Butler, I bequeath to my three sons Abra- 
ham, John & Smith Thompson to be equally divided between them." 

2 6 . c. 1862 .__D /|\_ Lynch, An Epoch and a M an (1929 ) 
Description of MVB's bedroom and furnishings; see p. 64. 

27. 1866, December 5. Account of STVB with S. & J. S. Bogardus 
(Fishkill Landing r(LC-VB~) 

"Bought of S. & J.S. Bogardus, Dealers in Cabinet Furniture, Chamber 
Suits, Looking Glasses, Carpets, Oil Cloths, Etc. 

Aug. 16th To 1 sash fastening and putting on .35 

23rd To making [plan?] 2.00 
29th To filling in with hair — covering seats — 

glueing—Polishing 6 Blk walnut chairs 5.40 

Oct. 11th 1 Wash stand 2.00 

1 Chair 1.35 

15th 1 Looking glass plate 10 by 14 1.25 
" 29th To 10 Boards $5.90 / Black Walnut $4.35 / 

Hinges - spring catches $1.25 11.90 

Nov. 1st 13*5 days work @ Library 47.25 

16th To Upholstering, Repairing, Varnishing 2 chairs _JL46_ 

$77.96 

Received Payment 

Jan 21st 1867 S. & J.S. Bogardus 



Note: Smith T. Van Buren left Lindenwald in 1862 and moved to Dutch- 
ess County. This 1866 account may have nothing to do with 
Lindenwald. 



87 



28. 1891, May 24. George A. Townsend, in "New York Sun" 

"I entered the parlor and through it the library. The parlor is dou- 
ble and closets are contained within the frame of its folding door. 
Pieces of Mr. Van Buren's furniture are still here although the late 
Aaron Vanderpoel , who resided at Kinderhook got a good deal of it. 
Veneered mahogany was the general material. A tall gilt mirror re- 
mains and a carved dressing case. The library is a simple room, 25 
by 30 feet, with plenty of light, and the tall windows in white sash- 
es. Van Buren was not a great reader, but he loved literary society, 
and the engraved picture of the authors of America is in this room, 
as if they were welcome here — Cooper, Bryant, Longfellow, Irving, 
Prescott, Taylor, Willis, and others." 

29 . 1898. Pie rre V.B. Hoes, quoted by Ernest P. Hoes, in "The 
Columbia Republican," February 22, 1906 . 

"There he dispensed a genial and liberal hospitality, enjoying the 
visits of the villagers also with a truly charming cordiality. His 
tastes were simple, quiet and gentlemanly. He was passionately fond 
of young people, and it was a beautiful sight to see him with his 
grandchildren around the grounds or riding in the saddle with one of 
them at his side. A droll instance of his hospitality is given by 
some wag who once found his way to Lindenwold. After the usual salu- 
tations the old gentleman invited the callers to the sideboard, and 
set before him various articles of refreshment, and then turned away 
and became engrossed in a picture on the wall. 'I know he knew all 
those pictures by heart,' the thirsty man said afterward, 'but he 
just did that so I could get a good square drink. I call that down- 
right politeness and hospitality.' 

"As an incident of Mr. Van Buren's perfect simplicity may be cited the 
following anecdote. One day soon after he had settled down at Lin- 
denwold a caller was approaching his comfortable surroundings and re- 
marked: 'Ah, I see, sir, you have an old fashioned Dutch clock in 
the hall.' 'Yes, certainly,' he said; 'John was determined I should 
have one, and picked it up in Chatham street.' 

"He wore a high hat usually, sometimes with a cabbage leaf inside, 
and has been seen going out of town on a canter, umbrella over his 
head, glasses on his nose, and reading a newspaper." 

3 . 1928, Jul y 6. "Plaintiff Exh i bit 6" "Birney vs. Birney , " 
Supreme Court New York, AppellaTe Division (printed 1932 ) 

"Much of old furniture still in hse. which was used by Pres. Van 
Buren. " 



88 



3 1 . 1935, May. Mrs. C. B. deProsse, "Description of 'Lindenwald ' " 

"...the furniture 1n both front rooms was here at the time of Van 
Buren...a great deal that was here when the former President lived 
here.... It 1s mostly of the Empire period, mahogany, some carved. 
Cabinet-makers' names are still on many pieces...." 

32. 1936, November 3. M.J. Weig report " 'Lindenwald'--The Presi - 
dent Martin Van Buren Homestead," Appendix IV . 

Inventory of Martin Van Buren Furniture at "Lindenwald" as prepared 
by Mrs. C.B. deProsse, Present Owner of the Property. See Appendix 
C of this report. 

33. 1936. "Martin Van Buren Exhibition Catalog," The National 
"Savings Bank, Albany, New York 

See Appendix B of this report. 

34. 1938, F ebruary 12. C.B. deProsse to Dr. James Leath, Presi - 
"flent, Tolumbia County Historical Society " 

Includes description of Lindenwald and outbuildings. Refers to "fur- 
niture, mirrors, carpets, etc."; 1797 door knocker; "gilded frame 
mirrors, reaching from floor to ceiling" in front rooms; hall paper; 
"large centre chandelier of wght iron and chased bronze ornaments, 
with oil lamps and chimneys"; Boyington furnace; kitchen range and 
baker's oven; copper boiler with VB's name; VB's bathtub and toilet; 
and tower bell. See Appendix D of this report. 

35. 1940, January 12. Auction Notice Vanderpoel -Newcomer Estate 
(K), Copy in MAVA files 

"5 President Martin Van Buren book cases; 2 Van Buren ward robes in 
mahogany; 5 piece Van Buren parlor suite." 

36. 1979, Septem b er 19. Clementine B. deProsse, "To Whom It May 
Concern T^aTa tie, New York 



Valatie, N.Y. 
Sept. 19, 1979 



To Whom It May Concern 



My father, Dr. B.H. Birney, purchased "Lindenwald" from Mr. Adam Wag- 
oner in the year 1917. 

At that time, Mr. Wagoner stated definitely that the eight matched 
Empire style dining chairs, plus one more I gave to a dear friend, 
belonged to the Van Buren family and were used as dining chairs. 



89 



The Empire sofa was used with the set of grey horse hair parlour fur- 
niture, which is still in the president's former home. This sofa was 
also covered with grey horse hair in 1917. 

The little warming oven and fireplace grills were also named as part 
of Van Buren's possessions. 



Clementine Birney deProsse 

37. 1980, August 7. Clementine B. deProsse, "To Whom It May 
Concern 

August 7, 1980 

To Whom It May Concern: 

Mrs. Clementine Birney deProsse, former owner of Lindenwald, will 
consider selling at this time the following three pieces of furni- 
ture. These pieces originally graced the old Mansion and date to the 
President Martin Van Buren period. 

1 Rosewood melodeon 

1 Mahogany card table 

1 Mahogany Marble top commode 

Clementine B. deProsse 



^0 



Furniture: Documentary References and Extant Pieces 

SUMMARY OF FURNITURE REFERENCES 

Category Total pre-1839 1839-1849 1850-1862 post-1862 



Beds 


9 


1 


2 


2 


4 


Chairs 


19 


4 


1 


3 


11 


Chests 


3 








1 


2 


Mirrors 


7 


2 


1 





4 


Musical Inst. 


6 











6 


Secretaries 


11 








7 


4 


Sideboards 


10 


5 


1 


1 


3 


Sofas 


19 


3 


5 





11 


Tables 


16 


3 


3 


3 


7 


Wardrobes 


4 





1 


1 


2 


Subtotal 


104 


18 


14 


18 


54 


Furn. Gen. 


37 


10 


13 


3 


11 



Grand Total 141 28 27 21 65 



91 



EXTANT FURNITURE 



1. Martin Van Buren Nati onal Hi stor ic S i te, Kinderh ook , New York , 
104 items 

Document ation : The bulk of MAVA's furniture collection was purchased 
from Ken Campbell in 1975 by the Hyde Park Historical Association and 
the National Park Foundation and subsequently donated by them to the 
National Park Service. These items were stated to have been in Lin- 
denwald during Van Buren's occupancy. Many of these pieces also ap- 
pear in 1917 or 1930s photos of Lindenwald (figs. 1-16). Other items 
in MAVA's collection were purchased from or donated by the deProsse/ 
Akers family, other Kinderhook area residents, and other individuals. 

C onclusion : Most of these items are of the proper period to have 
Tjeen used by Martin Van Buren and his family at Lindenwald and many 
have been in the house since at least 1917. The furniture will be 
used as references and as period practice suggest. 

2 . W hite House, Washington, D.C., 5 i tems 

D ocume n tation : One sofa and 4 side chairs were donated to the White 
House from two sources. They seem to predate the White House years 
and were later used at Lindenwald, since the sofa later came into the 
Vanderpoel family. 

Conclusion : These pieces would be appropriate for use at Lindenwald 
"and a loan should be arranged, if possible. 

3 . N ational Museum of American History, S mithso nian Institution , 
Washington, D.C., 1 item 

Documentation : A library table was given to the Smithsonian by Wil- 
liams College in 1977. It had descended in the family of Aaron Van- 
derpoel who purchased numerous pieces of furniture from Lindenwald 
estate c. 1864. 

4 • Private Collections in New York, California, Connecticut , 
Florid a, 22 items 

D ocumentation : These important pieces are in the hands of Van Buren 
descendants, Kinderhook area residents, and other individuals in 
various locations. Documentation is strong for most pieces. 

Conclusion: A number of these pieces are essential to the restora- 
tion of Lindenwald. Every effort should be made to obtain relevant 
pieces through donation, purchase, or loan. 



*2 



SUMMARY OF EXTANT FURNITURE ASSOCIATED WITH VAN BUREN 







MAVA 


MAVA 


Other 


Collections 


Category 


Total 


(strong) 


(weak) 


Private 


Public 


Beds 


4 


3 





1 






Chairs 


43 


27 


7 


5 




4 White House 


Chests 


13 


2 


9 


2 






Mirrors 


13 


4 


8 


1 






Musical Inst, 


, 3 


1 


2 









Secretaries 


4 


2 


2 









Sideboards 


6 


4 


1 


1 






Sofas 


13 


6 


3 


3 




1 White House 


Tables 


29 


11 


9 


8 




1 Smithsonian 


Wardrobes 


7 


4 


3 










Total 135 64 44 21 



93 



BEDS 
References 

1 . 1829, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH ) 

"The Best Bedstead (yours) — highest bid $17" (unsold, probably sent 
to Washington.) 

2 . 1843, July 13. Angelica (L) to Mother (SC) (LC-ASVB ) 

"Baby... we put him to sleep & laid him in his crib surrounded by his 
playthings & flowers & a pretty picture you never saw." 

3. 1843, October 9. Angelica (L) to Mother (SC) (LC-ASVB ; 
DLC-9885) 

"There have been several other stray visitors too & last night we 
were compelled to have recourse to the sofa bedsteads." 

4 - 1851, May 20. MVB (L) to B FB (L C-VB #34 ) 

"I have not slept out of my own bed since I was in NY last fall nor 
spent more than 2 evenings out of my own House." 

5. c. 1862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man, 1929, p. 544 

"The sleigh-bed, of the same warm-toned mahogany from which the rest 
of the furniture is fashioned " 

6 . 1917. Clementine B. deProsse, et al , Interviews, April-May 

1977 

"There were eight sleigh beds (hand graining, walnut and mahogany) in 
the house when they (Dr. Birney) purchased it in 1917." 

7 • c. 193 0s . Color Photograph of Room 101, dePros se Collection , 
MAVA Neg. 5110 

This photograph (fig. 1) shows a large mahogany or mahogany veneer 
sleigh bed of late classical style. This bed has not been located. 

8 • 1936. Inventory of MVB Fur nitur e, Weig, "Lindenwald," Appen - 

dix IV. 

"19 — 3 large mahogany sleighback beds; 
32 — Grey painted bedroom set; 
1 Sleighback bed. . . 



Q4 



9 • 19^5 . C l_em e rvti ne^ B^_ deP r o ss e_,J[o Whom It May Concern, MAVA 

"AccT5^ 

"To Whom it may Concern: 

The two Mahogany Sleigh Beds owned by Mrs. Cornelia Birckmayer, were 
originally owned by Pres. Martin Van Buren. 

They were purchased from me at the time I owned and lived at "Linden- 
wald," the former home of President Van Buren. 

/s/ Clementine Birney deProsse 
Clementine Birney deProsse 

Sworn to before me this 
20th day of October, 1975. 

/si Harold V.A. Drumm 

Notary Public 



Extant Beds 



1. SLEIGH BEDS (2), mahogany, late classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 347 

and private collection) 

D Pjro£Qjtiti°_n: Originally owned by Martin Van Buren, according to 
Mrs. Clementine B. deProsse, who sold them to Mrs. Cornelia Birck- 
mayer before 1957. Mrs. Birckmayer sold one to the National Park 
Service in 1980 (MAVA 347) and the other to a Kinderhook resident 
sometime thereafter. 

C onclusion : These beds are of the right period and style to have 
been used at Lindenwald. 

2. SLEIGH BED, grained pine, late classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 92) 

Documentation: Found in Lindenwald attic in 1977 and identified by 
deProsse/Akers family as part of original Lindenwald furnishings. 

Conclusion: This bed is of the correct period and style for Linden- 
wald. 



95 



3. SLEIGH BED, mahogany veneer, late classical, c. 1840, with 
label of William Shlpman (MAVA 1324) 

Documentation : William Shlpman 1s listed among the cabinetmakers in 
the New York City Business Directory 1n 1840-41. The bed was pur- 
chased from the deProsse/Akers family who assert that 1t was Martin 
Van Buren's bed. 



Conclusion 
Fas 



: This large sleigh bed is of the correct period and style 
a strong Lindenwald provenance. 



Beds- -Summary 



Mrs. Clementine B. deProsse has 
sleigh beds from the Van Buren 
beds were mahogany, some were 
these, 4 are extant, 3 in MAVA's 
and 1 in private hands. 



stated that in 1917 there were eight 

period in Lindenwald. Some of the 

walnut, and some were grained. Of 

collection (MAVA 347, 92, and 1324), 



Only the large mahogany sleigh bed with William Shipman's label (#3) 
has been identified with a particular person or room. This bed is 
believed to be the bed which Martin Van Buren used at Lindenwald and 
the bed in which he died in 1862. 

The "Best Bedstead" used by Van Buren in Albany and sent to Washing- 
ton in 1829 has not survived, nor has any crib associated with Van 
Buren's grandchildren. 

The "sofa-bedsteads" are discussed under sofas. 



CHAIRS 



References 



1 • 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I shall want to get the following articles from N York--8 chairs for 
the receiving room; 12 chairs for the drawing room—light & neat-- 
cushions to be made here & to correspond with the curtains; 30 for 
the dining room I should say light and neat mahogany with black bot- 
toms. . ." 



96 



2- 1829, September 8. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 
"Let Mr. Cockron make two chairs for me like yours & send them on." 

3. 1829, October 15. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 

"My little Franklin's head is so completely bound by the failure of 
the N York easy chairs & the obvious superiority of his.... I do as- 
sure you that he has cause for exultation for they present truly a 
mournful scarcity of calico & stuffing." 

4. 1830, September 10. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers ) 

"I am seated in my lounge chair from which & its vicinity I shall not 
soon depart." 

5. 1839, July 30. STVB (A) to ASVB (Europe) (MAVA #714 ) 

There were "11 chairs" in the dining room at Kleinood at the time of 
Van Buren's first visit after he bought Lindenwald. 

6. 1858, April 12. Portrait of MVB, GPA Healy (White House 
865.1336 ) 

A high-backed chair with wooden crest rail, tufted orange upholstery, 
is in the background of this portrait which was painted at Linden- 
wald. 

7. 1859, April 30. Account of STVB with M.H. Reid (LC-VB ) 
"1 qt copal varnish for chairs..." 

8. c. 1862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man (1929), p. 544 

"On days when he is too weak he sits on an easy chair covered with 
chintz. . .three fiddle-back chairs, with seats of gray horse-hair, 
complete the furnishings." 

9. c. 1864. Letter, P.I. Prentice to Superintendent, MAVA , 
March 1, 1977 

Regarding a sofa and chair he intends to give to MAVA: "I can only 
tell you that both my mother [Lydia Vanderpoel Prentice], who died in 
1956, and my grandmother [Adeline E. Vanderpoel], who died in 1912, 
both told me my grandfather [Aaron] Vanderpoel bought them for his 
home "Sparren Roede' in Kinderhook when the furnishings of Linden- 
wald were sold at auction when the president's son lost the house." 
See #11, 12, 13, below. See also Extant Chairs, #6. 



97 



10 - 1866, December 5. Invoice for STVB, S & JS Bogardus (Fishkill 
l anding) (LC-VB T 

"To filling in with hair covering seats — glueing— pol ishing 6 Bl k 
walnut chairs 5.40 

1 chair 1.35 
To upholstering, Repairing, Varnishing 

2 chairs 6.46." 

1 1 . 1904, May 1 4-May 1 0, 1911. Will of Adeline E. Vande r poel , 
recorded D ecember 20, 1912, Will Book A A, p. 493, Deed Book 
1 52, p. 4 86, Colu mb ia County Courthouse, H u dson, N.Y . 

Originally, Mrs. Vanderpoel left to her son Augustus H. Vanderpoel 
"the large dining table and chairs that belong [sic] to Martin Van 
Buren." By a codicil dated May 10, 1911, everything left to Augustus 
(deceased) was left to her three daughters: Mary V. Franklin, Marga- 
ret V. Newcomer, and Lydia V. Prentice. Margaret Newcomer also was 
to receive all furniture in the house at Kinderhook not otherwise 
mentioned. See #9, above. 

1 2 • 1912 , Novemb er 2. Wil l of Mary Vanderpoel Franklin, Recorded 
July 20, 1916, Surr ogate Court, County of New York 

Mrs. Franklin left "my Van Buren chair" to her sister Margaret Van- 
derpoel Newcomer. 

1 3 . 1?I9_>_ January 23. Will of Marga ret Vanderpoel Newcomer, Re - 
c orded Ju ly 6, 1 920, Deed B ook 1 7 0,' p. 355, Columbia County 
Court House, Hud son, N.Y . 

Mrs. Newcomer left all furniture to her husband, Waldo Newcomer, to 
be distributed among his children. See #18, below. 

14. c ._19 29. Article by Major Ale x W ell, unidentified newspaper 
TMAVA Collection ) 

See Fig. 7. 

1 5 • c. 1930s. Pho tographs in deProsse Col lection (MAVA Neg. 5110) 

See Figs. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14. 

1 6 • £ • 1930s. Photogra phs from R owles St udio Collection (MAVA 
Neg . 5120 ) 

See Figs. 8, 12, 16. 



98 



17. c. 1936. Photograph from Weig Collection (MAVA Neg. 5160 ) 
See Fig. 15. 

18. 1940, January 12. Auction, Margaret Vanderpoel -Newcomer 
Estate, Kinderhook 



Items to be sold included "5-piece Van Buren parlor suite." See #9, 
above. 

19. 1984, January 21. Christie's New York, "American Furniture 
.../' p. 221, lot 219 

"219 A FEDERAL MAHOGANY SIDE CHAIR, New York, 1790-1810 

With molded square back with a raised center crest rail above a 
carved and pierced Prince-of-Wales plume flanked by fan-carved span- 
drels above a carved and pierced urn, over a trapezoidal over-uphol- 
stered seat rail on reeded square tapering legs and spade feet-- 
approx. 34 in. (87cm.) high" 

Note: Though no provenance was published, at the sale it was stated 
that the provenance was the same as lot 339, extension dining table 
once owned by Martin Van Buren, descended in Vanderpoel -Newcomer fam- 
ilies. See Extant Chairs, #7. 

Extant Chairs 

1. ARMCHAIRS (2), mahogany, late classical with Gothic trefoil 
cutouts, 1835-55 (MAVA 13, 60) 

SIDE CHAIRS (6), mahogany, late classical with Gothic trefoil 
cutouts, 1835-55 (MAVA 54-59) 

All of the chairs have been reupholstered in persimmon mohair 
plush (a reproduction based on original fabric). 

Documentation : These chairs form a set with sofa, settee, card ta- 
ble, and center table (MAVA 14, 02, 07, and 26). DeProsse/Akers 
family tradition says this set was selected for Lindenwald when it 
was first furnished in 1841. The set appears in c. 1917 and 1930s 
photos (figs. 10-15) and remained in Lindenwald (see 1936 Inventory, 
Item 30, Appendix ?) until purchased by Hyde Park Historical Associa- 
tion and National Park Foundation and donated to the National Park 
Service in 1975. The armchairs are very similar to the one depicted 
in Healy's 1858 portrait of Van Buren (fig. 21), painted from life at 
Lindenwald. 



99 



Conclusion: The style of the set is typical of New York cabinetmak- 
ers of the period (such as Meeks and Roux), and it could very well 
have been purchased there expressly for Lindenwald in 1841. The 1858 
painting lends additional credence to the set's Lindenwald prove- 
nance. 

2. SIDE CHAIRS (8), mahogany veneer, Empire, klismos style, 1820- 
35, with black horsehair cloth slip seats (reproduction based 
on original fabric) (MAVA 262-269) 

Documentatio n: Statement by Clementine Birney deProsse, September 
19, 1979: "My father, Dr. B.H. Birney, purchased "Lindenwald" from 
Mr. Adam Wagoner in the year 1917. At that time, Mr. Wagoner stated 
definitely that the eight matched Empire style dining chairs, plus 
one more I gave to a dear friend, belonged to the Van Buren family 
and were used as dining chairs." One appears in Figure 16, c. 1930s. 
See also #16, below. 

C onclusion : These chairs accurately fit the description of the 30 
dining chairs ordered from New York by MVB for his Washington resi- 
dence in 1829 (Ref. 1). The one given away by Mrs. deProsse is un- 
located, as is the rest of the set. 

3. SWIVEL ARMCHAIR, basswood or linden with brown leather back 
(reproduced from original covering), Elizabethan Revival with 
spool -turned supports, 1850-55 (MAVA 83) 

D ocumentatio n: Found in Lindenwald attic in 1977. This chair ap- 
pears in a 1930s photograph (Fig. 3) and, according to deProsse/Akers 
family, belonged to Van Buren and was in the house when Dr. Birney 
purchased it in 1917. It was listed in the 1936 inventory, item 2 
(Appendix ?) as "Van Buren's personal study chair." 

Conclusion : This type of chair developed in the 1850s and was often 
used in libraries and offices as well as in other rooms. 

4. SIDE CHAIRS (4), tiger-stripe maple, with caned seats (repro- 
duction based on original), late classical with Gothic pointed 
arches, 1825-40 (MAVA 148-151) 

Documentation : These chairs were given to CCHS by the estate of Mrs. 
Home in 1973 to be held for Lindenwald. NPS received the chairs in 
1977. Chairs correspond to various chair fragments found in Linden- 
wald' s attic in 1983 (Ace. 267). Evidence of original rosewood 
graining was found on these chairs and the fragments. 

Conclusion : These chairs fit the description of the 12 "light & 
neat" chairs ordered from New York by MVB in 1829 for the drawing 
room of his Washington residence. 



100 



5. ARMCHAIR, walnut, rococo revival, 1845-55 (MAVA 127) 

Documentation : Donated to CCHS by John T. Bender, Jr., in 1968 and 
purchased by NPS in 1977. A note attached to the chair by Mr. Bend- 
er's father states that the chair was owned by President Van Buren at 
his home near Kinderhook. The chair is said to have been a commode 
chair, but conservation treatment in 1982 revealed no evidence of 
this. The chair has been reuphol stered several times and the origi- 
nal covering has not been determined. 

Conclusion : This chair is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

6. SIDE CHAIR, rosewood with inlay, late classical, 1835-40 
(MAVA 116) 

Documentation : Donated to NPS with sofa (MAVA 115) in 1977 by P.I. 
Prentice, a descendent of Aaron Vanderpoel who purchased numerous 
furnishings from the Lindenwald estate c. 1864. According to the 
donor's family tradition, these pieces were part of a parlor set pur- 
chased for Lindenwald by Van Buren's "sister." The set is believed 
to be European and the original covering has not been determined. 
See reference 9, above. 

Conclusion : The set has a strong Lindenwald association; however, it 
is unlike other documented Van Buren furnishings. It is possible 
that it was part of a set purchased in 1838-39, when Angelica, Abra- 
ham, and John Van Buren were in Europe; however, there is no docu- 
mentation for this. The chair would be appropriate for use with the 
sofa. 

7. SIDE CHAIR, mahogany, Federal, 1790-1800, black horsehair 
cloth (MAVA 1016) 

Documentation : Purchased at Christie's auction in 1984 by NPS. This 
chair descended in the family of Aaron Vanderpoel and is believed to 
be the "Van Buren chair" mentioned in family wills. A 1904 will men- 
tions dining chairs once owned by Van Buren and a will of 1912-14 
mentions only one chair. The whereabouts of the rest of the set is 
unknown. See references 11-13, 19, above. 

Conclusion : This side chair was undoubtedly made in New York; how- 
ever it is much too early to have been made for Lindenwald or for Van 
Buren's Washington residence, and chairs Are not mentioned as being 
among the items unsold, packed, and sent to Washington in 1829. If 
this chair was at Lindenwald, it was possibly brought by one of Van 
Buren's daughters-in-law or more likely, was one of the "11 chairs" 
left in the house when Van Buren purchased it in 1839. This chair 
would be appropriate for use at Lindenwald as an "odd" chair. 



101 



8. ROCKING CHAIR, mahogany veneer, late classical/rococo revival, 
1840-50, black horsehair cloth (reproduction based on origi- 
nal) (MAVA 32) 

Document ation : According to Ken Campbell, this rocker was among the 
TurmshTngs left in Lindenwald when he purchased it in 1957. Pur- 
chased in 1975 by HPHA and donated to NPS. 

Concl usion : Rocker is of the correct period for Lindenwald but the 
documentation is not strong. 

9. SIDE CHAIRS (2), mahoaany and mahogany veneer, Empire (Grecian, 
modified klismos), 1825-35 (MAVA 107, 108) 

Docume ntati on: Purchased by NPS from Ken Campbell in 1977. 

Conclusion: The set of 8 chairs ordered from New York for the re- 
ceiving room of MVB's Washington residence in 1829 (Ref. 1) could 
have been of this style, though no VB association was claimed for 
these chairs. 

10. ARMCHAIRS (2) and SIDE CHAIRS (2), walnut, Louis XVI revival, 
1865-75, grey-green horsehair cloth (MAVA 48-51) 

Documentation: These chairs and matching settee (MAVA 52) and an- 
other settee no longer extant were stated by the deProsse/Akers fam- 
ily to have been part of the Van Buren furnishings left in the house. 
Parts of the set appear in 1930s photographs (Figs. 4, 8). 

Conclusion: Although this set has a Lindenwald provenance, it ap- 
pears to date from later than the Van Buren period. The set should 
be retained for further study. 

11. ARMCHAIRS (3), mahogany veneer, late classical (Grecian), 
1830-40, brown-black horsehair cloth seats (private col- 
lections) 

Docu mentation : Owned by descendents of the Birckmayer family in Kin- 
derfibok, New York, and Hartford, Connecticut. These chairs were re- 
putedly brought by Martin Van Buren to a Kinderhook cabinetmaker 
(Birckmayer) for repair. When Van Buren died, the chairs were never 
called for. Minutes of the August 9, 1862, meeting of Van Buren's 
sons at Lindenwald reveal that Smith T. Van Buren, one of the execu- 
tors, was "authorized to pay the following Bills against the Estate, 
viz: Philip Birckmayer $127.50..." 

Conclusion: These chairs dre of the correct period for Lindenwald. 



102 



12. SIDE CHAIRS (4), mahogany, late classical (Grecian), c. 1830, 
black horsehair cloth seats (White House 962.287.1-4) 

Documentation: Donated to the White House in 1962 by Mrs. Arthur 
Mawhinney of New Rochelle, New York, who stated that the chairs "were 
in the home of President Van Buren." 

Con clusi on: These chairs also fit the description of the 8 ordered 
from New York by MVB for his Washington residence in 1829 (Ref. 1). 

13. SIDE CHAIR, mahogany, slip seat, transitional late classical/ 
rococo revival, 1850-70 (private collection) 

Do cume ntation: This chair was purchased at auction at the Niverville 
Exchange on February 22, 1969, by Mr. William Drumm with the under- 
standing that it and a small trestle table were from one of the "ori- 
ginal auctions of Martin Van Buren at Lindenwald, Kinderhook, N.Y." 
(pre-Birney) and were purchased by Thomas Garrigan. As of 1980, the 
chair was still in the possession of Mr. Drumm of Niverville; Mr. 
Drumm died in 1983 and the present location of the chair is unknown. 

C oncl usion: This chair, probably part of a parlor set of six, dates 
later than the original furnishing of Lindenwald, but is of the pro- 
per period to have been used when Smith Thompson Van Buren and his 
family joined the ex-President there, 1850-62. This chair would be 
appropriate for use in the addition. 

14. WINDSOR SETTEE, early 19th century (private collection) 

Documentation: The settee is owned by a descendant of the Hoes fam- 
ily who at one time lived in the mansion house across from Linden- 
wald and who claims that the settee and a pair of candelabra came 
from Lindenwald. 

Conclusion: There is no documentation for Windsor chairs or settees 
at Lindenwald; however, it is possible that this piece was used at 
Lindenwald during the Van Buren period, perhaps as a "left-over" from 
the Van Ness period. The settee would be appropriate for use in a 
back or service hal 1 . 

15. ROCKING CHAIR, slat-back, 1800-50 (MAVA 1111) 

Docu mentation : This rocking chair was received in 1941 by Mrs. Law- 
rence F. Selig from her grandmother, Mrs. Cora Dickenson, who at one 
time lived in Valatie, New York, and was given the chair by a niece 

of Van Buren's who said it had belonged to the ex-President. The 
chair was purchased by MAVA in 1984. 



103 



Conclusion : The chair 1s of the correct period for Lindenwald and 
would be appropriate in a service area or servant's room. 

16. SIDE CHAIRS (2), mahogany veneer, Empire (Grecian, klismos), 
c. 1820-35 (MAVA 1174, 1175), with needlepoint slip seats 

Documentation : These chairs match MAVA 262-269 (#2, above) and were 
donated to NPS in 1985 by Dexter Hinckley who had received them many 
years before from Clementine deProsse. 

Conclusion : These chairs are original and would be appropriate for 
use. The needlepoint seat covers should be replaced with black 
horsehair cloth. 



Chairs—Summary 



A number of the chairs Van Buren ordered from New York in 1829 and 
later used at Lindenwald are believed to be among the 40 chairs asso- 
ciated with Van Buren which have survived in various collections. 

The 10 klismos dining chairs (#2 and #16) believed to be part of the 
set of 30 "light and neat mahogany with black bottoms" originally 
ordered for Van Buren's Washington residence are typical of chairs 
used in upstate New York as well during the period. Similar sets of 
klismos dining chairs were used by the Van Rensselaer family at 
Cherry Hill in Albany and by the Bronck family in Coxsackie. 

The 4 tiger maple chairs with cane seats (#4) are believed to be part 
of the set of 12 "light and neat" chairs ordered for Van Buren's 
Washington drawing room. Cushions for these chairs have not sur- 
vived. 

References to "easy" and "lounge" chairs in 1829 indicate Van Buren's 
desire for comfort. Although these particular chairs have not sur- 
vived, later examples, such as the high-backed tufted armchairs from 
the Gothic-decoratad parlor set (#1) and the rococo revival tufted 
armchair (#5) were used at Lindenwald. 

There is no description of the "11 chairs" used for dining at the 
mansion in 1839 and they undoubtedly represented a variety of dates 
and styles, either left by the Van Ness or Paulding families or 
brought in by the Van Burens for the occasion. 

The black walnut chairs with haircloth seats repaired for Smith T. 
Van Buren in 1866 have not been found and it is not possible to de- 
termine if they were used at Lindenwald. 



104 



There is no description of the 5-piece parlor set auctioned in 1940, 
however, it may relate to the small rosewood chair (#6) or the trans- 
itional rococo revival chair (#13). 

We do not know the source of Lynch' s 1929 description of Van Buren's 
bedroom in 1862; however, the "easy chair" could be #5 and the three 
"fiddle-back" chairs could be from sets #9, 11, or 12. 



CHESTS OF DRAWERS/COMMODES/CUPBOARDS 
Refere nces 

1 • c. 1862. D.T. Lynch, An E poch a nd A Man (1929), p. 544 

"The sleigh-bed, of the same warm-toned mahogany from which the rest 
of the furniture is fashioned, is flanked on either side by a plain 
chest of drawers." This refers to Van Buren's bedroom. 

2 • 19 36. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald" Repor t , " 
Appendix IV 

"18 - Mahogany bureau 
30-2 dressers 
32 - Grey painted bedroom set... 

4 - Dresser 

5 - Washstand 

36-2 mahogany marble- top washstands" 

3 - 1 930s. Photographs , deProsse/Ake rs Collections (MAVA Neg. 5110 ) 

Photograph of Room 101 (Fig. 1) showing marble-top bureau with mir- 
ror. 

Extant Chests of Drawers/Commodes/Cupboards 

1. COMMODE, mahogany, marble top, late classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 
350) 

Docum entation : Purchased from Clementine B. deProsse in 1980, this 
piece "originally graced the old Mansion and dates to the President 
Martin Van Buren period." 

Conclusion : This commode or washstand is of the proper period for 
Lindenwald. 



105 



2. CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany, mahogany veneer, and pine, 
Federal/late classical, 1815-35 (MAVA 27) 

Documen tatio n: Purchased from Ken Campbell by NPF and donated to NPS 
in 1975, this chest is one of nine claimed by Campbell to have been 
part of the Van Buren furnishings. The deProsse/Akers family did not 
confirm this claim. 

C onclu sion: This piece is too early to have been purchased especial- 
ly for Lindenwald, but could have been one of those pieces sent up 
from Washington. 

3. CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany veneer, cherry, and pine, late 
classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 28) 

Documentation : Same as #2. 

C onclusion : This chest is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

4. CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany, mahogany veneer, and pine, late 
classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 44) 

Documen tatio n: Same as #2. 

Con clusion : This chest is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

5. CHEST OF DRAWERS, painted-grain poplar and pine, late clas- 
sical, c. 1850 (MAVA 53) 

D ocumentation : Same as #2. 

Con clus ion: This chest is of the correct period to have been used at 
Lindenwald. 

6. CHEST OF DRAWERS, birds' eye maple and pine, marble top (MAVA 
135), late classical, 1830-40, with oval mirror (MAVA 136) 

Documentation: This is one of four chests given to NPS in 1977 by 
Ken Campbell . The deProsse/Akers family denied that it had a VB 
association. 

Conclusion: Although association is lacking, this chest is of the 
proper period for Lindenwald. 



106 



7. HIGH CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany and oak, late classical, 
1830-40 (MAVA 138) 

Documentation : Same as #6. Neither confirmed nor denied by the 
deProsse/Akers family. 

Conclusion : Although documentation is lacking, this chest is of the 
proper period to have been used at Lindenwald. This piece bears sim- 
ilarities to wardrobe MAVA 134). 

8. CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany, mahogany veneer and poplar, 
Empire (archaeological classical), 1825-30 (MAVA 139) 

Documentation : Same as #6. Neither confirmed nor denied by deProsse/ 
Akers family. 

Conclusion : This chest is too early to have been purchased especial- 
ly for Lindenwald and documentation is lacking. 

9. CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany veneer and poplar, Empire (arche- 
ological classical), 1825-35 (MAVA 140) 

Documentation : Same as #6. Neither confirmed nor denied by deProsse/ 
Akers family. 

Conclusion : This chest is too early to have been purchased especial - 
ly for Lindenwald and documentation is lacking. 

10. CHEST OF DRAWERS, mahogany veneer, late classical (Gothic 
elements), 1835-45 (MAVA 665) 

Documentation : Ken Campbell claimed this was a Van Buren piece; how- 
ever, this was denied by the deProsse/Akers family. Donated to NPS 
by John B. Warner following Mr. Campbell's death in 1981. 

Conclusion : This piece is of the proper period to have been used at 
Lindenwald, although documentation is lacking. 

11. CHESTS OF DRAWERS (2), mahogany, marble tops, late classical, 
1830-40 (private collection) 

Documentation : These unmatching chests are in the possession of the 
deProsse/Akers family and are said to have been part of the Van Buren 
furnishings at Lindenwald. 

Conclusion : These chests are of the proper period for Lindenwald. 

12. CUPBOARD, grained pine, Federal/classical, country, 1800-50 
(MAVA 20) 



107 



Documentation : This cupboard was identified by the deProsse/Akers 
family as a Van Buren piece left in Lindenwald's basement. Purchased 
by HPHA from Ken Campbell and donated to NPS in 1975. 

Conclusion : This cupboard is of the proper period to have been used 
at Lindenwald. 



Chests of Drawers/Commodes/Cupboards--Summary 

There are no period references to case pieces being used by Van Buren 
in Albany, Washington, or Kinderhook. There is one reference in 
Lynch' s 1929 book to two plain chests of drawers in Van Buren' s bed- 
room at Lindenwald, but the source of Lynch's description is not known 

Four pieces that were in the house when the deProsse's owned it — 
1 commode (#1), 1 cupboard (#12), and 2 chests of drawers (#11)— are 
extant in MAVA's and a private collection. The remaining 9 chests 
were in Lindenwald in 1975 but they are not well documented as Van 
Buren pieces. 



MIRRORS 
References 

1. 1829, April 18. JVB (A) to MBV (W) (PSU-ADH) 

No bid upon "one Pair mirrors" from MVB's house in Albany. 

2. 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I shall want to get the following articles from N York--2 pier 
glasses for the mantle pieces—three feet & a half wide & about 4^ 
high--I prefer these to the mantelpiece glasses." 

3 . 1840. "Speech of Mr. [Charles] Ogle on the Regal S ple ndor of 
the President's Palace^ 

"What would the frugal and honest 'Hoosiers' think were they to be- 
hold a democratic peacock , in full court costume, strutting by the 
hour before golden-framed mirrors NINE FEET HIGH and FOUR FEET and a 
HALF WIDE?" 

4 . 1866, December 5. Account of S TV B with S & JS Bogardus 
(LC-VB) 



108 



"Oct. 15th 1 Looking Glass plate 10 by 14, 1.25" 

5* 1936. Invento ry of MVB Furni ture, Weig, "Lindenwald Report," 
Appe ndix IV 

"4 - 2 large mirrors (3' by 10 '6") 

6. 1930 s. Photographs from Weig, Rowles S tudio , and deProsse 
Collection (MAVA^egsTTI F0T~5T2~0T a~nd~ 5THU~ 

See Figs. 12, 14, and 15, showing pier mirror in Room 106. 

7 . 1938, February 12. Clementine B. d eProsse to Dr . Jame s Leath 
7 see A ppendix DT~ 

"Front rooms have gilded frame mirrors, reaching from floor to ceiling." 
Extant Mirrors 



1. PIER MIRRORS (2), gold leaf on pine and poplar frame, late 
classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 23, 24) 

Docume ntation: Located between the front windows in Lindenwald rooms 
104 and 106, these pier mirrors were donated to MPS in 1975 by Ken 
Campbell. Tradition says these mirrors were brought by Van Buren 
from the White House, although they do not match the dimensions of 
the White House mirrors given by Rep. Charles Ogle in 1840 (Ref. 3). 

Conclusion: There is no evidence to substantiate the claim that 
these~mirrors were brought from the White House and because of their 
fit, it is more likely they were purchased specifically for Lindenwald. 
Structural evidence and wallpaper layers indicate these mirrors have 
been in place since the mid-19th century. See Figs. 12, 14, 15. 

2. MIRRORS (2), ogee-moulded, mahogany veneer on pine, late 
classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 35, 36) 

Documentation : Declared by the deProsse/Akers family to be part of 
the Van Buren furnishings, these mirrors were purchased by the NPF 
from Ken Campbell and donated to NPS in 1975. 

Conclu sion: These mirrors are of the proper period and style to have 
been usedTat Lindenwald. 

3. MIRRORS (3), ogee-moulded, mahogany veneer on pine, late 
classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 30, 37, 41) 



109 



Documentati on: Claimed by Ken Campbell to have been part of the Van 
Buren furnishings; the presence of these mirrors at Lindenwald was 
neither confirmed nor denied by deProsse/Akers family. Purchased by 
NPF and donated to NPS in 1975. 

Conclusion : Documentation for these mirrors is not strong, although 
they are of the proper period for Lindenwald. 

4. MIRRORS (4), ogee-moulded, mahogany weneer on pine, late 
classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 109, 110, 111, 113) 

Documentation : The NPS purchased these mirrors from Ken Campbell in 
1977. Although they might have been part of the Van Buren furnish- 
ings, the deProsse/Akers family did not confirm this. 

Conclusion : The mirrors are of the proper period for Lindenwald. 

5. PIER MIRROR, with carved and gilded mahogany frame, 
empire/late classical, 1825-45 (MAVA 193) 

Documentation : This pier mirror was donated to NPS in 1978 by 
Mrs! Donald Whitbeck of Kinderhook, whose family tradition reports 
the mirror was taken from Lindenwald by Adam Wagoner when he sold the 
house to Dr. Birney in 1917. 

Conclu sion : This pier mirror is of the proper date to have been used 
at "lindenwald during the Van Buren period; however, since the most 
formal rooms have simple-framed pier mirrors in place, it is not 
apparent where this elaborate piece would have been used. If a Van 
Buren piece, it might have come to Lindenwald with Smith T. and his 
family in 1849. The mirror should be retained for further study. 

6. MIRROR, ogee-moulded, mahogany veneer on pine, late classical, 
1830-40 (private collection) 

Documentation : This mirror is in the possession of the deProsse/Akers 
family who state it was used at Lindenwald during the Van Buren period 

Conclu sion: This mirror is of the proper period and style to have 
been used at Lindenwald and would be appropriate in a bedroom. 



Mirrors—Summary 



The two pier glasses measuring 4Vh by 3Vw which Van Buren ordered 
from New York for over the mantelpieces in his Washington residence 
in 1829 (Ref. 2) have not survived; however, the 2 large pier mirrors 
(9Vh by 3'w) in the front rooms at Lindenwald (#1) have been dated 
to the Van Buren period. Oral tradition suggests the latter mirrors 



110 



were brought from the White House; however, they do not fit Represen- 
tative Ogle's description (9'h by 4Vw) (Ref. 3) and they do appear 
to have been made especially for Lindenwald. 

There is no description of the pair of mirrors sent from Albany to 
Washington in 1829 (Ref. 1), nor is there any description for the 
frame which fit the "Looking Glass Plate 10 x IT ordered by Smith 
T. Van Buren in 1866 (Ref. 4) when he was living in Beacon, NY. 

Ten mahogany veneer ogee-moulded mirrors of various sizes, at least 
three of them reasonably well associated with Van Buren and Lindenwald, 
are extant in MAVA's and a private collection (#2, 3, 4, 6). 

An elaborate gilt-framed pier mirror (#5) removed from Lindenwald in 
1917 has survived. Although it does date from the Van Buren period, 
its original location in the mansion is not known. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 

References 

*• c. 1917. Pho tograph, deProsse Collec tion (M AVA Neg. 5110) 

See Fig. 6 showing Hallett and Cumston piano in hall (Room 105). 

2* c. 1929. Articl e by Majo r Alex Well in un iden tified newspaper 
TMAVA lJe g . ~T ~^ 

See Fig. 7 showing Hallett and Cumston piano in hall (Room 105). 

3. 1936 . Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald Report," 
Appendix IV 

"9--Hallett and Cumston piano and stool" 

4 . 1930s. Photogr aph, deProsse Collection (MAVA Neg. 5110) 

Fig. 8 showing Hallett and Cumston piano in hall (Room 105). 

5* 193 0s. P hotographs, R owles S tudio and deP rosse Co llections 
TMAVA Neg. 5120, 5110T 

Figs. 12 and 14. Both show the melodeon (MAVA 348) in Room 106, 
though in different locations. 

6. 1980, August 7. Clementine B. deProsse, To Whom It May 
Concern (MAVA Ace. 59) 



111 



See General Furnishings Reference #30, page 88. 
Extant Musical Instruments 



1. MEL0DE0N, rosewood, rococo revival, made by Bernhard Shoninger, 
New Haven, Connecticut, 1850-60 (MAVA 348) 

Documentation: Statement signed by Clementine B. deProsse on August 
7, 15815, maintains that this was one of the pieces that "originally 
graced the old Mansion and date to the President Martin Van Buren 
period." It remained in deProsse family possession until purchased 
by NPS in 1980. See Figs. 12 and 14. 

Concl usion: The melodeon likely came to Lindenwald for use by Smith 
T. Van Buren' s family, 1850-62. 

2. SPINET PIANO, rosewood, late classical, made by John Tallman, 
New York, 1825-35 (MAVA 75) 

Documentation: This piano was supposedly owned by Margaret Silvester 
oT Kinderhook, whom Van Buren is said to have courted. It was 
donated to NPS in 1975 from the estate of George Van Santvoord, 
through his daughter, Allelu Kurten. 

Conc lusion : Although this piano was never at Lindenwald and its Van 
Buren association is tangential, it is a good example of a New York 
piano of the period. 

3. SQUARE PIANO, mahogany, late classical/rococo revival, made by 
Hallet and Cumston, Boston, Massachusetts, serial #9926, 1860- 
65, (MAVA 01) 

Document ation : The deProsse/Akers family state that this piano was 
inTTndenwald when they occupied it (1917-1957) and they believe it 
to have belonged to Jenny Jerome, whose father owned Lindenwald 
1864-66. Purchased by HPHA from Ken Campbell and donated to NPS in 
1975. See Figs. 6-8. 

Conclusion: Although the piano has a Lindenwald provenance, it is 
pro~5ably too late to have been used during the Van Buren period 
whether the Jerome association is valid or not. Its use is not 
anticipated. 



112 



Musical Instruments—Summary 



There is not a single reference to a musical instrument or to musical 
entertainment at Lindenwald in any of the contemporary documents 
researched. Although Van Buren and his family attended the opera in 
New York and Angelica Singleton Van Buren played the harp in her girl- 
hood, no other indications of musical tastes or talents have been 
found. 

A melodeon (#1) said to have been at Lindenwald during the Van Buren 
period is in MAVA's collection, as is a piano supposedly used at 
Lindenwald later by Jenny Jerome (#3). 

Also in MAVA's collection is a New York-made spinet piano (#2) 
reputedly owned by Margaret Silvester, whom Martin Van Buren is 
said to have courted during his retirement years. 



SECRETARIES/BOOKCASES/DESKS 
References 



1. 1850, April 20. STVB to R. Upjohn, (Upjohn Papers-NYPL) 
Piatt, HRS, p. 91 

"Pray hurry on the Library & Hand-rail. Did I understand that they 
were to be done by the same hand? I saw a Library designed for Mr. 
Barnard in Albany which pleased me & only cost $200. It was black 

walnut and plain--but was prettier than Mr. 's (in 14th St.) as 

Kelly's was before Barnards.. . ." 

2. 1850, May 13. Ibid. Piatt, (HRS, p. 92) 



"The estimates for the Library differ so much that I must submit the 
matter to your discretion. If you know & can rely upon the person 
who offers to do the work for $300, of course, you will give it to 
him.... How many feet of wire-work did you say?" 

3. 1850, May 5. Ibid. Piatt, (HRS, p. 91 ) 

"As to the Library you seem to have forgotten our arrangement: which 
was that you should have the plan (when completed) estimated upon by 
one or two competent persons at New York.... 



113 



4. 1850, May 17. Ibid. (Piatt, HRS, p. 98) 
"Estimate of... Library (including wire work) $340." 

5 . 1850, June 28. Ibid. (Piatt, HRS, p. 94) 

"I have had a visit from Mr. Halenback [Hollenbeck] who promises to 
be here with his book-cases about the 15th July...." 

6. 1850, August 14. Thos. C. Moore (NY) to RU (Piatt, HRS, 
pp. 95-961 

"Please give me the length & width of mesh concluded on for Mr. V 
Burens Secretary & as near as practicable the Size of wire to be 
made of. I called at your office & left word for this & hoped to 
have heard from you in this" 

7. 1850, August 22. Thos. C. Moore (NY) to RU (Piatt, HRS, p. 96) 

"The doors for Mr. Van Burens book case are all done and subject to 
your directions. I send over herewith for your inspection & hope 
they will please. Any directions you may send me relative to for- 
warding will be attended to. I presume they will not require to be 
boxed." 

8. 1936. Exhibition Catalogue, The National Savings Bank, 
Albany TUT 

"Item 11. Bookcase used by Martin Van Buren in his library at 
Lindenwald. Loaned by James Adger Reynolds." 

9. 1936 . Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

"1--Van Buren' s personal secretary." 

10. 1930s. Ph otograph, deProsse Collection (MAVA Neg. 5110) 

See Fig. 3. 

1 1 • 1940, J a nuary 12. Auction Notice, Vanderpoel -Newcomer 
Estate (~K) , copy in TlA VA files 

"5--President Martin Van Buren book cases" 
Extant Secretaries/Bookcases /Desks 



1. SECRETARY-BOOKCASE, mahogany, mahogany veneer, pine and poplar, 
glazed doors, late classical, 1830-50 (MAVA 05) 

114 



Documentation : This glass- fronted secretary-bookcase was identified 
by the deProsse/Akers family as having belonged to Van Buren at 
Lindenwald. It appears in a 1930s photograph (Fig. 3). Purchased by 
HPHA from Ken Campbell and donated to NPS in 1975. 

Conclusion : This secretary-bookcase is of the proper period to have 
been used by Van Buren at Lindenwald, although it lacks the wire-mesh 
doors provided by Thomas Moore in 1850 (Ref. 1) for Van Buren 's new 
secretary (Reference 6, above) 

2. SECRETARY-BOOKCASE, mahogany, mahogany veneer, poplar and pine, 
late classical, 1835-45 (MAVA 125) 

Documentation : This New York City type secretary-bookcase supposedly 
belonged to Martin Van Buren and was purchased at an auction prior to 
1954 by William O'Connor of Hudson. The story passed that the piece 
had been lost in a card game by one of Van Buren' s sons. This infor- 
mation is provided in a letter by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ganley, November 
15, 1976. Kathryn MacDonald inherited the piece and sold it to NPS 
in 1977. 

Conclusion : There is no documentation for the "card game" story, 
although the secretary-bookcase is of the correct period to have been 
used at Lindenwald. The piece might be one of the 5 Van Buren book- 
cases auctioned in 1940 (Ref. 11). 

3. BUREAU DESK, mahogany and mahogany veneer, Empire (archaeolo- 
gical classical), 1825-45 (MAVA 09) 

Documentation : This bureau desk was among the furnishings purchased 
from Ken Campbell by HPHA and donated to NPS in 1975. The deProsse/ 
Akers family did not confirm the presence of this piece in the house. 

Conclusion : Documentation is not strong; however, this piece is of 
the correct period for Lindenwald and could conceivably be the 
"carved dressing case" mentioned as being in Lindenwald in 1891 
(General Furnishings reference 22). 

4. SET OF OPEN SHELVES, pine with walnut stain, late classical 
style, c. 1850 (MAVA 102) 

Documentation : Donated by Ken Campbell in 1977 as a Van Buren piece. 
Its presence at Lindenwald was neither confirmed nor denied by the 
deProsse/Akers family. 

Conclusion : Although documentation is weak, this could be used as a 
period piece. Possibly used for books, but not decorative enough for 
use in the Upjohn-designed library. 



115 



Secretaries/Bookcases/Desks- -Summary 



The only period references to secretaries and bookcases at Lindenwald 
are found in Smith T. Van Buren's and cabinetmaker Thomas Moore's 
correspondence with architect Richard Upjohn in 1850 (Ref. 1-7). The 
wire-fronted pieces referred to have not been located. Secretary- 
bookcases with Van Buren associations, which appear to pre-date these 
references, exist in MAVA's collection (#1 and #2). 

According to the Historic Structures Report, bookcases lined the 
walls of the library (Room 111). There is no indication what the 
bookcases looked like, except that they probably had wire-mesh doors. 
These bookcases may have been the "5 President Van Buren book cases" 
offered for sale in 1940 (Ref. 11). These have not been located, 
nor has the bookcase listed in the 1930s catalogue. 

Five bookcases designed by Upjohn in 1842 for Robert Kelly's New York 
home which are currently in the collections of the New York State 
Museum (Albany) and the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute (Utica) 
may have been similar to those used at Lindenwald, although STVB 
preferred the style of Mr. Barnard's in Albany to that of Kelly's 
(Ref. 1). 



SIDEBOARDS 
References 

1. 1816, July 31. BFB (A) to MVB (NYSL) 

"They say your sideboard cost $1100. ('How the world is given to lying 1 )" 

2 . 1827, November 28. JVB (NHaven) to J. Hoyt (A) Mackenzie , 
Life of MVB, p. 202 

"The bullet mould is in one of the draws of the side board." 

3. 1829, April 18. JVB (A) TO MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 
"One Sideboard & eel larette--highest bid $65" 

4. 1829, May 3. JVB (NY) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 

"Before the receipt of your last letter I had sold the sideboard & 
celleret for $133 to Hugh Robison--there is not a 'grown thing' in 
Albany that I have not consulted as to the value & practicality of 
transporting it & 'with one accord they all united' in the opinion 

116 



that 133 dollars was the full value & that the transportation was 
very hazardous if not impracticable on account of the slab... great 
decreases in value of mahogany so that the best sideboards can be 
bought for $150 new--& I think you must be satisfied that under the 
circumstances I did the best that could be done." 

5. 1829 , August 15. MVB ( W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. papers) 

"I shall get my mahogany centre table & side board made here." 

6 - 1843, August 24. A nge lica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB ; PLC 9881 

"Mary Mac represented me below stairs at the teaboard " 

1 - pre-1862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man (19 29), p. 508 

"On a sideboard in the dining room stood rows of bottles and decanters 
On a mahogany console in the great hall, was the familiar punch- 
bowl 

8 . 1906, February 22. E.P. Hoes, in The Columbia R epublican 

"the old gentleman invited the callers to the sideboard and set before 
him various articles of refreshment." 

9 - 193 0s. Phot ograph, Rowles Stud io Coll. (MAVA Ne g. 5120) 
Fig. 16, showing a small sideboard in room 111 (MAVA 42). 

10 - 1936. Inventory o f MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

"27--Large mahogany sideboard" 
Extant Sideboards 



1. SIDEBOARD, mahogany and mahogany veneer, marble top, late 
classical, 1835-45 (MAVA 42) 

Documentation : According to the deProsse/Akers family this small 
sideboard was among the Van Buren furnishings left in Lindenwald when 
Dr. Birney purchased the house in 1917. It was purchased by NPF and 
donated to NPS in 1975 (figure 16). 

Conclusion : This sideboard is of the proper period and style to have 
been part of the furnishings purchased for Lindenwald c. 1841. 



117 



2. SIDEBOARD, mahogany and mahogany veneer on pine, Empire 
(archaeological classical), 1815-25 (MAVA 114). The brass 
lion-mask ring pulls are reproductions based on period sources. 

Docum entation: Bought in 1939 by Mr. Henry Brinley near Keyport, 
New Uersey, the sideboard had been purchased by Mr. Peter Hayt of 
Poughkeepsie from President Van Buren's estate for Mr. Thomas 
Rosevear c. 1892 (statement provided by Mr. Rosevear's son Edward, 
Sept. 6, 1939). Donated to NPS in 1977 by Mr. Brinley's daughter, 
Mrs. William Berner. 

Conclusion : The sideboard appears to be New York-made and is early 
enough and of high enough quality to have been the sideboard purchased 
for Van Buren's Albany residence in 1816; however, no sideboard was 
sent to Washington in 1829 and the one sold in Albany in 1929 had a 
"slab." 

3. SIDEBOARD, mahogany and mahogany veneer, Federal /Empire 
transitional, 1810-20 (MAVA 724) 

Documentatio n: Supposedly used by Van Buren at the White House, this 
sideboard was "reacquired" by the Beekman family who had originally 
owned it. Donated to NPS in 1982 by Mrs. Robert Cooke who received 
it from Ruth Bergen, a Beekman descendant. It is not known when or 
where the sideboard was "reacquired." 

Conclusion : Although there were Beekmans who were friends and neigh- 
bors of Van Buren while he resided at Lindenwald, there is no appar- 
ent connection to this particular branch. The sideboard appears to 
be a New York piece (Duncan Phyfe type) and could have been used by 
Van Buren in Washington or Kinderhook, although documentation is weak. 

4. SIDEBOARD, mahogany veneer and poplar, late classical (pillar 
and scroll), 1830-40 (MAVA 76) 

Doc umentation: This sideboard is \/ery similar to those advertised by 
New York" cabinetmaker Joseph Meeks in 1833. It was owned by Martin 
Van Buren's brother Lawrence who also lived in Kinderhook. Donated 
to NPS in 1976 by descendants of Lawrence Van Buren (1786-1868). 

ConcJ us_iojn: Although this sideboard was not used at Lindenwald, its 
Wn Buren family-Kinderhook association make this piece appropriate 
for use. 

5. SIDEBOARD, mahogany and mahogany veneer, Federal, c. 1815 
(MAVA 08). The ivory pulls are not original. 

Do cume nta tion : According to Ken Campbell, this piece was among the 
furnishTngs left in Lindenwald when he purchased the house in 1957. 
The deProsse/Akers family deny this piece was in the house. 



118 



Concl usion: This piece (probably New York -made) is most likely part 
of Mr. Campbell's antique (non-Van Buren) collection. While the 
sideboard is of an acceptable period, its use is not anticipated. 

6. SIDEBOARD, mahogany with inlay, Federal (Hepplewhite) , 
c. 1790-1800 (private collection) 

Docum ent ation : This sideboard was purchased by Louis Hasbrouck in 
1908 Trom Katherine Van Buren Wilson, Martin Van Buren's grand- 
daughter, who no longer had room for the piece. A letter from Mrs. 
Wilson to Mr. Hasbrouck documents the transaction concerning the 
"dear old Side Board" and the piece is owned by Hasbrouck descendants 
(copy in MAVA files) . 

Conclusion: Because of its early date, this sideboard may have des- 
cended~Tn Van Buren's family or in his wife's family or perhaps in 
the family of Katherine' s mother, Ellen James, first wife of Smith 
Thompson Van Buren. 

The strong Van Buren family provenance would make this piece appro- 
priate for use even though there is no Lindenwald association claimed 
for it. 



Sideboards- -Summary 



The sideboard purchased for Van Buren's "Albany establishment" in 
1816 was presumably the sideboard which John Van Buren sold to Hugh 
Robison in 1829. Apparently Van Buren had reservations about its 
sale; however, it was deemed more economical to sell the mahogany, 
marble-slabbed piece than to transport it from Albany to Washington. 
That particular sideboard would not have been used at Lindenwald and 
it has not been located. 

There are three early (1790-1825) sideboards with traditional Van 
Buren associations in MAVA's collection and in private hands (#2, 3, 
6) which, according to their histories, could have been used at 
Lindenwald, although their origins are not known. These sideboards 
pre-date Van Buren's move to Washington and appear to be New York- 
made; however, no sideboard other than the one sold in 1829 is men- 
tioned in the correspondence. 

The sideboard Van Buren intended to have made in Washington in 1829 
has not been identified. 

The small marble-topped sideboard (#1), 1835-45, in MAVA's collection 
may be the "teaboard" referred to in 1843 (Ref. 6) or the "mahogany 
console" Lynch mentions (Ref. 7). 



119 



SOFAS 

References 

1 • 1829, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 

"Old sofa" sold for $22.50; "sofa (Best)" unsold, high bid of $44 
2 - 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. papers) 

"My sofa and mahogany I can get made here by a very ingenious man who 
works at the capitol . " 

3. 1831. Account book of A. Jackson "Furniture of Mr. V. 



Bu rin "Bought" Tor~ Th~e~Hernn tage" " (AJ"P~a"pirsT ~ 

"One sofa Presented to the President by M V Buren" 

4 - 1843, August 23. Angelica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB; DLC-988 1) 

"I am still chained to my sofa... by using great caution I was able to 
be carried down & laid on the Hall sofa." 

5 . 1 843, Septembe r 3. An gel lc a (Char ! estown Navy Y d ) t o mo ther 
"(SC), (LC-ASVBT 

"I asked them up into my room at Lindenwald. . . I did not rise from my 
sofa...." 

6 • 1 843, October 4. Angel i ca (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB; 
D JC-Q884T 

Baby's "asleep on the sofa beside me When he is confined to the 

house he is always astride a walking stick except when he can catch 
Martin (old Duke he calls him) upon the sofa & then after dinner 
especially alas for old Duke he jiggles the s/ery breath out of him." 

7 • J 8 !3 , _0c tober 9_._ Angelica (L) to mothe r (S C) (LC-ASVB; DLC- 
9885) 

"There have been several other visitors too & last night we were 
compelled to have recourse to the sofa bedsteads." 

8. 184 5_, September 20. Angelica (L) to M. deV e aux (LC-ASVB; 

DLT-nSP) 

"Baby. . .sidles along the sofa...." 



120 



9- c . 1864. See Chairs—Reference #9 

10. 190 4, Ma y 14. Will o f Ade line E. Vanderpoel, Recorded 

December 20," 191 2 [Will Book AA, p. 493~K Columbia County 
Courthouse, Hudson, NY" 

Mrs. Vanderpoel leaves to her daughter Lydia Beekman Prentice a 
"large Van Buren sofa. " 

1 1 • c.1917 . Photograph, dePros se Col l ., (MAVA neg. 5110) 

Fig. 6, showing sofa-bed (MAVA 03) in hall (room 105), west wall. 

12. c .1 929. Article b y Majo r Alex Well, unidentified newspaper 

TmavaT 

Fig. 7, illustration of room 105 with sofa-bed (MAVA 03) on west wall, 

1 3 . c. 193 0s. Photo g raph, Rowles Studio Coll. (MAVA neg. 5120) 

Fig. 8, showing two settees (MAVA 52 and non-extant) in room 105, 
west wall . 

1 4 • 193 0s. Color photog raph, deP rosse Coll. (MAVA neg. 5110) 

Fig. 9, showing sofa-bed (MAVA 03) in room 105, east wall. 

15. 1930s . Photograph, Rowles Studio Coll. (MAVA neg. 5120) 
Fig. 12, showing sofa (MAVA 14) in center of room 106. 

1 6 . cA93 6^ Photogra ph, We ig C oll. (MAVA neg. 5160) 

Fig. 15, showing sofa (MAVA 14) on east side of room 106. 

17. 1 936. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

"3— Grey horsehair set . . . 
3--2 settees 
4—1 sofa 

10— Black hair upholstered davenport 

20— Mahogany parlor suite (imported from France by Van Buren) . . . 
3—1 love seat 
4—1 sofa" 



121 



1 8 . 19 40, Ja nuary 12. Auctio n N otice, Vanderpoel -Newcomer Estate 
( K) (copy in MAVA files! " 

"5 piece Van Buren parlor suite" 

1 9 . 1 979, Se pt ember 19. Clementine B. deProsse, To Whom It May 
Concern 

See General Furnishings Reference #36 for reference to "Empire sofa." 
Extant Sofas 



1. SOFA and SETTEE, mahogany and mahogany veneer, late classical 
(Gothic quatrefoil cutouts), 1835-55 (MAVA 14, 02). The 
persimmon mohair plush covering is a reproduction based on 
original fabric. 

Documentat ion : This sofa and settee are part of a set which includes 
six side chairs, two arm chairs, and two tables. DeProsse/Akers 
family tradition says this set was selected for Lindenwald when it 
was first furnished by Van Buren in 1841. The set appears in 1930s 
photos (Figs. 11, 12, 15) and remained in Lindenwald through 
Campbell's occupation. Purchased by HPHA and donated to NPS in 
1975. 

Conc lusion : The style of this set is typical of New York cabinet- 
makers of the period and it could yery well have been purchased there 
expressly for Lindenwald in 1841. 

2. SOFA-BED, mahogany veneer, late classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 03). 
The black horsehair cloth is a reproduction based on the 
original fabric. 

Documentation: This sofa appears in 1917 and 1930' s photos of 
Lindenwald ("Figs. 6, 7, 9) and, according to the deProsse/Akers 
family, is a Van Buren piece. Purchased from Ken Campbell by HPHA 
and donated to NPS in 1975. 

C onclusio n: This sofa-bed is the correct period for Lindenwald and 
it might well be one of the "sofa-bedsteads" referred to in Angelica 
Van Buren's letter to her sister in 1843 (Ref. 7). 



122 



3. SOFA, mahogany veneer, late classical, 183040 (MAVA 270). 
The black horsehair cloth is a reproduction based on the 
original fabric. 

Documentation : Purchased by NPS in 1978 from Clementine B. deProsse 
who stated: "the Empire sofa was used with the set of grey horsehair 
parlor furniture, which is still in the president's former home. 
This sofa was also covered with grey horsehair in 1917." It was also 
included with the "grey horsehair set" in the 1936 inventory (Ref. 17 
and General Furnishings Reference 36). 

Conclusion : This sofa is of the correct period for Lindenwald, but 
does not match in date or style the parlor furniture referred to by 
Mrs. deProsse and no evidence of grey horsehair was found. 

4. SOFA, mahogany veneer, inscribed "Gray & Ingersoll, Hudson, 
N.Y." on reverse of back cushion, late classical, 183545 
(MAVA 101) 

Documentation : Purchased by NPS in 1977 from Ken Campbell. 

Conclusion : Sofa is of the correct period for Lindenwald, but docu- 
mentation does not indicate a Van Buren association. 

5. SOFA, rosewood with inlay, late classical, probably European, 
183540 (MAVA 115) 

Documentation : Donated to NPS in 1977 by P. I. Prentice, descendant 
of Aaron Vanderpoel who purchased numerous furnishings from Linden- 
wald estate c. 1864. "The story is told that before MVB returned 
from the White House he asked his sister to start furnishing Linden- 
wald. But she spent so much money on the Parlor pieces that he told 
her he would have to do the buying himself for the rest of the house" 
(Prentice to Stewart, March 1, 1977). Family will (1904) mentions 
"large Van Buren sofa" left to Mr. Prentice's mother. This sofa has 
a matching side chair (MAVA 116). There is no evidence of the 
original fabric covering. 

Conclusion : The set has a strong Lindenwald association but is un- 
like other documented Van Buren furnishings. It is possible that the 
set was purchased in 183839 when Angelica, Abraham, and John Van 
Buren were in Europe, although there is no documentation for this. 

6. S0FABED (FRAGMENTS), late classical (country), 183040 
(MAVA ace. 181) 

Documentation : Field collection, discovered on old barn site at 
Lindenwald in 1981 and identified by Don Carpentier. 



123 



C onclusion : This might be another of the "sofa bedsteads" mentioned 
by Angelica in 1843 (Ref. 7). The sofa is beyond restoration, but 
should be retained in the study collection. 

7. SETTEE, walnut, Louis XVI revival, 1865-75 (MAVA 52) 

Do cumentation : This settee, a matching one, two side chairs and two 
armchairs (MAVA 48-51) appear in 1930s photos of Lindenwald (Fig. 4, 
8). DeProsse/Akers family tradition says the originally green-gray 
horsehair-covered set belonged to Van Buren and Mrs. deProsse so 
listed it in the 1936 inventory (Ref. 15). The matching settee no 
longer exists. 

Con clusion : Although this set has a strong Lindenwald history, it 
appears to date later than the Van Buren period. The set should be 
retained for further study. 

8. SOFA, mahogany and mahogany veneer, black horsehair cloth, 
Empire, 1825-30 (White House 962.263.1) 

Docu mentatio n: Donated to the White House as a Van Buren piece in 
1962 by Mrs. ""Virginia Pegram Newcomer, descendant of Aaron Vanderpoel 
who purchased numerous Lindenwald furnishings c. 1864. 

Conclusion : The sofa has a strong Lindenwald history. While it pre- 
dates Van Buren' s purchase of Lindenwald, it may have been the sofa 
he had made in Washington in 1829 for his residence there and later 
possibly sent to New York (Ref. 2). 

9. SOFA, mahogany and mahogany veneer, Empire, 1820-40 (MAVA 242) 

Do cumentation : This sofa was donated to NPS by Virginia Jones of 
Washington, D.C., through Mr. H. McCoy Jones. The Joneses are des- 
cendants of Van Buren's mother's family (Hoes). 

C onclusion : The sofa has no direct association with Martin Van Buren; 
however, it is similar to the Van Buren sofa in the White House col- 
lection and could be used at Lindenwald if needed. It needs to be 
reuphol stered. 

10. SOFA, no description available (private collection) 

D ocumentatio n: Owned by a direct descendant of Martin Van Buren, 
this sofa was reputedly used by the President at the White House. 

Concl usion : Further investigation is needed to determine if this 
sofa is appropriate for Lindenwald. 



124 



11. SOFAS (2), walnut, empi re/ rococo revival, 1830-60 (private 
collection) 

Documenta t i_qn : Purchased by the late Jesse Porter Newton in Beacon, 
New York, during the Depression from a man who bought up estates and 
who told her they were from Van Buren's home. Mrs. Newton had the 
sofas on loan to the Martello Gallery in Key West, Florida, prior to 
her death. 

Conclusion: Further investigation is necessary to determine if these 
sofas could have been at Lindenwald, and later used by Smith T. and 
Henrietta Van Buren at their Beacon home. 

Sofas — Summary 

There are several references to sofas at Lindenwald, specifically 
those in the Hall and Angelica's bedroom. Extant Van Buren pieces 
which may relate to these references are two sofa-bedsteads (#2 & 6), 
mahogany sofa (#3), and the sofa and settee from the Gothic-decorated 
parlor set (#1). 

There is no description of the "5 piece Van Buren parlor suite" of- 
fered at auction by Vanderpoel descendants in 1940; however, the 
suite may have included the large rosewood sofa (#5) which also has 
a Van Buren-Vanderpoel provenance. 

There are no descriptions of the "old sofa" which was sold and the 
"Best" sofa which remained unsold from Van Buren's Albany residence, 
nor is there a description of the sofa which Van Buren presented to 
President Jackson in 1831. Since Van Buren apparently had a new sofa 
made for his Washington residence in 1829, it is likely that the one 
presented to Jackson was either the older "Best" sofa or the new one. 
Whichever went to Jackson, the other presumably went to Lindenwald 
in 1841, was purchased by Aaron Vanderpoel c. 1864, and is now in the 
White House (#8). 



TABLES/STANDS 
Refe rences 

1 • 1 829, April 18. JVB (A) t o MV B (W) (PSU-ADH) 

"One set dining tables— no bid upon.... Tea table (Best) $21 Card 
tables $20 each" These items were unsold and presumably sent to 
Washington in May 1829. 



125 



2. 1829, August 15. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 
"I shall get my mahogany centre table & side board made here." 

3. 1829, September 8. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I mean to have a round table in the sitting room with leaves which 
will at the same time answer for a Breakfast table & for a center 
table." 

4. 1839, July 30. STVB (A) to Angelica (Eur) (MAVA #714) 

At Kleinood "The furniture of the room was precisely this: three 
little tables of different heights placed under as many table cloths 
and extended in a line across the room — 11 chairs and one side table!" 

5. 1843, October 19. Gideon Welles, Journal (LC) 

"Breakfast was on the table... Mrs. A. V. Buren sat at the head 
table " 

6. 1845, November 23. Note on address side of letter, MVB (L) 
to Major AVB (NY) (MAVA #700) 

Two tables are included in a list of kitchen articles (purchased or 
to be purchased?). See General Furnishings Reference 21. 

7. 18 58, June 23. STVB Account with M.H. Reid (LC-VB) 
"Painting & graining 2 stands for Presidents Room 16t 2.00" 

1859, March 30. STVB Account with M.H. Reid (LC-VB) 

"1 qrt of Copal varnish for extension table 8/ 1.00 

Labor of self varnishing extension table 6/ .75" 

8. c. 1862, D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man (1929) p. 509 
"A shaving stand occupies a corner" of Van Buren's bedroom. 

9. 1862, July 30. Note by one of VB sons (LC-VB) 

"Letters & papers found in the drawer of Mr. V.B.'s bed-roan table" 

1 . 1867, February. STVB (Edgehill, Fishkill), Introduction to 

Inquiry into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in 
the U.S., by MVB 

"The citation from Cicero on the title-page was found on Mr. Man 
Buren's table, in his library, extracted in his own handwriting...." 



126 



11. c. 1917. Photograph, deProsse Coll. (MAVA neg. 5110) 
Fig. 6, showing room 105, including card table (MAVA 349) 

12. c. 1929. Article by Ma j or Well in unidentified newspaper 

TmavaT 

Fig. 7, showing room 105, including card table (MAVA 349) and 
another card table (see Extant Tables/Stands #4) 

13. 1930s. Photographs, Rowles Studio Coll. (MAVA neg. 5120) 

Figs. 8, 12, and 16, showing rooms 105, 106, and 111. Tables include 
card table (MAVA 349), center table (MAVA 26), and a card table and 
center table now in private collection. 

14. 1930s. Photographs, deProsse Coll. (MAVA neg. 5110) 

Fig. 1, room 101, showing stand (MAVA 06); Fig. 9, room 105, card 
table (MAVA 349); Figs. 11 and 13, room 106, card table (MAVA 07). 

15. 1936. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

"5 — large marble-top table 

16 — Van Buren's personal shaving stand 

20 -- Mahogany parlor suite (imported from France by Van Buren . . . 

5 ~ 1 card table 
29 — large card table upon which the estate was gambled away 
32 -- grey painted bedroom set . . . 

3 — table 
34 — marble-top table 
36 -- 2 mahogany marble-top wash stands 
42 — miscellaneous tables ..." 



16. 1984, January 21. Christie's New York auction of "American 
Furniture. . . ." ~ 



127 



Lot. 334, "A fine and rare Federal mahogany accordion-action dining 
table," attributed to New York, 1800-1810, or Baltimore, 1800-1815. 
Provenance: Dr. John Vanderpoel [wrong], Aaron Vanderpoel , Adeline 
Vanderpoel, Margaret Vanderpoel Newcomer, Waldo Newcomer, Benjamin 
Franklin Newcomer, and his son [Waldo Newcomer]. "According to family 
tradition, the table belonged to Martin Van Buren . . . and was used 
in his house, Lindenwald, in Kinderhook, NY ... . He lived there 
until his death in 1862, when the house passed to his sons who then 
sold it to Leonard Jerome. It was probably during this time that the 
furnishings were dispersed." 



Extant Tables/Stands 



1. SHAVING STAND, painted-grain basswood or linden and tulip, 
late classical, 1830-40 (MAVA 06) 

Do cumen ta tion : Stated by deProsse/Akers family to have been in 
Lindenwald during the Van Buren period. Purchased by HPHA from Ken 
Campbell in 1975 and donated to NPS. 

Con clusion : This shaving stand is of the correct period for Linden- 
wald and could very well be one of the painted-grain stands for the 
President's room referred to in the 1858 account of Smith T. Van 
Buren and M.H. Reid (Ref. 7) and Lynch (Ref. 8) 

2. CARD TABLE, late classical (Gothic decoration), 1835-55 
(MAVA 07) 

Documentation: This table forms a set with sofa, settee, chairs, 
and center table (MAVA 14, 02, 13, 54-60, and 26). DeProsse/Akers 
family tradition says this set was selected for Lindenwald when it 
was first furnished in 1841. Parts of the set appear in 1917 and 
1930s photos (Ref. 11-14) and remained in Lindenwald through 
Campbell's occupation. Purchased by HPHA for NPS in 1975. 

Concl usio n: The style of the set is typical of New York cabinetmakers 
of the period and could yery well have been purchased there especially 
for Lindenwald in 1841. 

3. CENTER TABLE, mahogany, marble top, late classical, 1835-55 
(MAVA 26) 

D ocument ation: Although this table does not have the Gothic decora- 
tion, it is believed to be part of the set described above. The table 
was purchased for NPS by the NPF in 1975. 

Conclusion: Appropriate for use with the rest of the set. 



128 



4. CARD TABLES (2), mahogany, late classical, Thomas Manahan, 
New York, 1830-40 (MAVA 349 and private collection) 

Documentation: One card table was purchased by NPS in 1980 from 
Mrs. "Clemen tine deProsse who stated that it "originally graced the 
old Mansion and dates to the President Van Buren period." Table 
appears in 1917 and 1930s photos (Ref. 11-14). The matching table 
is in a private collection in California. 

Conclusion: These card tables are of the correct period to have 
been purchased in New York for Lindenwald c. 1841. 

5. PEDESTAL CENTER TABLE, painted-grain pine, late classical, 
1835-40 (MAVA 15) 

D ocumen tation: This table was stated by the deProsse/Akers family 
to have "Been part of the Van Buren furnishings at Lindenwald and, 
particularly, the table upon which John Van Buren gambled away the 
estate in 1863. Purchased by HPHA for NPS in 1975 from Ken Campbell. 

Conclusion: The table is of the correct period for Lindenwald; 
however, there is no evidence supporting the gambling story. 

6. CENTER TABLE, mahogany veneer, with pedestal base and 12-sided 
tilt-top, late classical, 1835-45 (MAVA 128) 

D ocumentation : Donated to CCHS in 1959 by Miss Marie Sayles and 
Ralph Sayles, this table was reputedly made to the order of Martin 
Van Buren. After Van Buren 's death, it was given to Dr. Chrysler 
who lived in the "Aaron Burr house" on Broad Street in Kinderhook. 
Miss Nettie Chrysler, who was a cousin of the Sayles', sent the table 
to them in 1900. Purchased by NPS in 1978. 

C onclus ion: The table is of the correct period to have been pur- 
chased for Lindenwald. 

7. CANDLESTAND, mahogany, mahogany veneer and pine, ormolu trim, 
Empire, 1815-25 (MAVA 147) 

D ocumentat ion: Donated to CCHS in 1933 by Mr. and Mrs. Cyril Gross, 
this stand is listed as the "Van Beuren table" in the accession book. 
Purchased by NPS in 1978. 

C onclusion : The stand is typical of the work of French cabinetmakers 
working in New York during the period (e.g., Lannuier) and is of the 
proper period and quality to have been purchased by Van Buren for 
his "Albany establishment c. 1816. 



129 



8. SIDE TABLE, poplar and pine, late classical, c. 1840 (MAVA 129) 

Docu mentation : Donated to CCHS in 1930 by Mr. & Mrs. Cyril Gross, 
this table reputedly belonged to Martin Van Buren. Purchased by NPS 
in 1978. 

Conclusion: This small work or kitchen table could have been the 
"side table" or one of the "three little tables" referred to in 
Smith T. Van Buren' s 1839 letter (Ref. 4). 

9. CENTER TABLE, walnut, late classical/rococo revival, 1840-50 
(MAVA 126) 

D ocumentation : Donated to CCHS in 1966 by Worthington W. Frothingham 
who" stated that this table was purchased by Van Buren for his law 
office c. 1808-12. Van Buren supposedly sold the table to Mr. 
Frothingham' s grandfather when he (VB) left Albany to become Secre- 
tary of State in 1829. Purchased by NPS in 1978. 

C onclusion : This table is much too late to fit Mr. Frothingham' s 
story." The table is of the proper period to have been used at Lin- 
denwald, however, although its style is not consistent with other 
Van Buren pieces. The Van Buren association is questionable, but 
the piece should be retained for study and use if needed in the 
addition. 

10. DROP LEAF TABLE, mahogany and mahogany veneer, late classical, 
1830-40 (MAVA 77) 

Documenta tion : The table descended in the family of Martin Van 
Buren's brother Lawrence, also a Kinderhook resident, and was donated 
to NPS in 1976. A similar "breakfast table" appears in the 1833 
advertisement of New York cabinetmaker Joseph Meeks & Sons. 

Con clusion : While this table was not at Lindenwald, it is possible 
that Van Buren had furnishings similar to those owned by his brother 
and neighbor. The style of this table and its Van Buren family as- 
sociation make it appropriate for use. 

11. CARD TABLE, mahogany veneer and poplar, late classical, 
1835-40 (MAVA 34) 

H°£y!ll?Tlt§Morj : Purchased from Ken Campbell by NPF in 1975 for NPS, 
this table was confirmed by the deProsse/Akers family as one of the 
Van Buren pieces left at Lindenwald. 

CojTclusion: This card table is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 



130 



12. DROP LEAF TABLE, cherry and pine, late Federal (country), 
1825-35 (MAVA 47) 

Documentation: Same as #11 above. 

Conclusion: This table is of the correct period and style to have 
been one of the "three little tables" used for dining at Kleinood 
(Lindenwald) in 1839 (Ref. 4). 

13. CARD TABLE, mahogany veneer, late classical, 1835-40 (MAVA 103) 

D ocumentatio n: This card table was purchased in 1977 from Ken 
Campbell who claimed it was one of the Van Buren pieces. This was 
neither confirmed nor denied by the deProsse/Akers family. 

Conclusion : Although the documentation is not strong, the card 
table is of the proper period and style (possibly New York-made) to 
have been used at Lindenwald. 

14. WORK or SEWING TABLE, mahogany veneer and pine, late classical, 
1835-45 (MAVA 146) 

Documentation : According to Ken Campbell this table was among the 
Van Buren furnishings left in Lindenwald. Presence of this piece in 
the house was neither confirmed nor denied by the deProsse/Akers 
family. Donated to NPS in 1977. 

Conclus ion: Documentation is not strong. However, the table is of 
the proper period for Lindenwald and numerous references to sewing 
activities there make this piece appropriate for use. 

15. TABLE, mahogany, Elizabethan Revival (spool-turned), 1850-65 
(MAVA 137) 

D ocumentatio n: Same as #14 above (MAVA 146). 

C onclusi on: Documentation is not strong. However, this small table 
dates to the period of the Upjohn addition. 

16. WASHSTAND, painted poplar or pine, Elizabethan Revival (spool- 
turned), 1850-60 (MAVA 142) 

Doc umentation : Donated to NPS in 1977 by Ken Campbell; deProsse/ 
Akers family neither confirmed nor denied its presence at Lindenwald. 

Con clusion : Documentation is lacking. However, this washstand is of 
the proper period for use at Lindenwald. 



131 



17. SOFA TABLE, mahogany veneer, late classical, c. 1835-40 
(MAVA 39) 

Documen tation : Possibly a New York piece, this table was purchased 
by NPF for NPS in 1975 from Ken Campbell who claimed it was one of 
the Van Buren pieces left in Lindenwald. This was denied by the 
deProsse/Akers family. 

Conclusion: Documentation is not strong. However, this table is of 
the correct period for Lindenwald. 

18. SIDE TABLE, mahogany veneer, marble top, late classical, 
c. 1830-40 (MAVA 45) ' 

Documentation: Same as #17 above (MAVA 39). 

Conclusion: Same as #17 above. 

19. EXTENSION TABLE, mahogany and mahogany veneer, late classical, 
1830-40 (MAVA 112) 

D ocumen t ation : This table was purchased by HPHA for NPS in 1975 from 
Ken Campbell who claimed it was a Van Buren piece. This was denied 
by the deProsse/Akers family. 

C onclusion : There is an 1859 reference to an extension table at 
Lindenwald (Ref. 7), but that table is believed to be one now in a 
private collection (#21 below). This table is of the right period 
and could be used in room 105 until the original table becomes 
available. 

20. LIBRARY TABLE, rosewood, late classical, 1840-50 (MAVA 10) 

Documentation : Possibly a New York piece, this table was purchased 
in 1977 from Ken Campbell who claimed it was one of the Van Buren 
pieces. This was denied by the deProsse/Akers family. 

Conclusion: The library table in the collection of the Smithsonian 

Institution (#22 below) is believed to be the one referred to in 1867 

(Ref. 9). This table could be used in room 111 until the former 
becomes available. 

21. EXTENSION TABLE, mahogany, accordion-action, Federal, 1800-15 
(private collection) 

D ocumentat ion: This fine New York (Duncan Phyfe type) extension 
"dining table - descended in the family of Aaron Vanderpoel who pur- 
chased furnishings from the Lindenwald estate c. 1864. Referred to 
as the "Van Buren dining table" in early 20th century family wills 
(Adeline Vanderpoel, 1904; Mary Vanderpoel Franklin, 1914 codicil), 



132 



the table was on loan at Lindenwald in 1982-83 but was sold at 
auction in 1984 to a private collector who resides in New York state. 
See Reference 16, above; Chair References 11, 13. 

Conclusion : This table is of the proper period and quality to have 
been purchased by Van Buren for his Albany residence c. 1816. In 
1829 a "set dining tables" remained unsold and were packed and sent 
to Washington. A few months later, Van Buren ordered "30 dining 
chairs" from New York and it is likely that they were meant to ac- 
company this table which seats 30 people when its seven leaves are 
in place. An extension table, possibly this one, was also in use 
at Lindenwald in 1859 as evidenced by Smith T. Van Buren's account 
with M.H. Reid (Reference 7). 

22. LIBRARY TABLE, oak and walnut veneer, 1840-50 (Smithsonian 
Institution 1977.0707.01) 

Documentation : Given to the Smithsonian by Williams College 
(Williams town, Mass.), this table had descended in the family of 
Aaron Vanderpoel who purchased numerous Lindenwald furnishings c. 
1864. 

Conclusion : This table is believed to be the one used in Van Buren's 
library. 

23. DROP LEAF EXTENSION TABLE, mahogany (?), late classical 
(country), 1830-50 (private collection) 

Documentation : This extension dining table with six leaves is in 
the possession of the deProsse/Akers family who state that it was 
one of the Van Buren pieces from Lindenwald. 

Conclusion : This table is of the proper period to have been used 
at Lindenwald. 

24. END TABLE, mahogany (?), late classical, 1830-40 (private 
collection) 

Documentation : Same as #23 above. 

Conclusion : This table is of the proper period for Lindenwald. 

25. CENTER TABLE, rosewood, marble top, rococo revival, 1850-60 
(private collection) 

Documentation : This table is in the possession of the deProsse/Akers 
family who state that it was from Lindenwald. 



133 



Conclusion: This table could have been used at Lindenwald during the 
latter end of the Van Buren period, although its style is inconsis- 
tent with the other known furnishings. The use of this table is not 
anticipated. 

26. STAND, mahogany, Gothic/Elizabethan Revival (spool -turned) , 
1845-75 (private collection) 

Documentation: This table and a side chair were in the possession 
of Willard Drumm of Niverville, c. 1980. Mr. Drumm died in 1983 and 
the location of the pieces is not known. The pieces had been pur- 
chased by Mr. Drumm at auction at the Niverville Exchange on February 
22, 1969, with the understanding that they had been purchased by 
Thomas Garrigan at one of the original auctions of Martin Van Buren' s 
furnishings. 

C onclus ion: This table could have been used at Lindenwald during the 
Van Buren period. 

27. TABLE, no description available (private collection) 

D ocume nt ation : Bought at auction by friends of the owner's mother, 
the table reputedly came from Lindenwald and is now in use in the 
Albany area. 

Conclusion: Further investigation is necessary to determine if this 
table" would be appropriate for Lindenwald. 

28. TABLE, no description available (private collection) 

Documen tation : This table is owned by a private individual in Hudson 
who claims it is a Van Buren piece. 

Conc lusion: Further investigation is necessary to determine if this 
table would be appropriate for Lindenwald. 



Tables/Stands zz S umma ry 

Van Buren was apparently in possession of a "set [of] dining tables" 
in 1829 when he ordered 30 dining chairs for his Washington resi- 
dence. An extension table was also in use at Lindenwald in 1859. 
This table is believed to be the Federal accordion-action dining 
table (#21) in a private collection. 



134 



The round mahogany table with leaves which was to serve as a break- 
fast and center table in 1829 has not been found, although a twelve- 
sided pedestal table (#6) may have served a similar function at Lin- 
denwald. A description of breakfast at Lindenwald in 1843 does sug- 
gest, however, that the table in use was quadrilateral in shape, 
having Mrs. Van Buren at the "head." 

Lynch (1929) refers to the "round dining table" at Lindenwald; how- 
ever, there are no period references which confirm that a round table 
was used there. Lynch' s reference may actually be to the large 
round "gaming" table (#5). 

A number of card tables associated with Martin Van Buren are extant, 
but they post-date the 1829 reference. No "tea tables" are extant. 

The "3 little tables of different heights" used at Lindenwald in 

1839 were either left from the Van Ness occupancy or were brought to 

the mansion by Van Buren relatives for the dinner party. Tables #8 
and #12 might date from that time. 

The 1858 account indicates there were two grained and painted stands 
in Van Buren's room at Lindenwald and one of these (#1) has appar- 
ently survived. It is also referred to in Lynch's description of 
the ex-President's bedroom. The "bed-room table" referred to in 
1862, has not been identified. 

The table from Van Buren's library, referred to by his son in 1867, 
is believed to be the one purchased from the Lindenwald estate by 
Aaron Vanderpoel in 1864 which is now at the Smithsonian (#22). 

The remaining 18 tables are of various types and styles and the 
strength of their Van Buren documentation varies as well. 



WARDROBES 
References 

1 . 1843, June 22. Angelica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB; DLC-9876) 

"I had just written the above & rose to put the portfolio in the 
wardrobe. ..." 

2. c. 1862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man 

"Against the southern wall, between the valanced windows, stands a 
wardrobe with a mirror door... of the same warm-toned mahogany from 
which the rest of the furniture is fashioned " 



135 



3 • 1930s. Photograph, deProsse Coll. (MAVA neg. 5110) 

Fig. 2, room 101, with wardrobe (MAVA 12). 

4 . 193 J5. Inventory of MVB Furn iture, We ig, "Lindenwald ," 

Appe ndi x IV " 

"17 -- Van Buren's personal wardrobe 

31 -- 2 wardrobes 

32 -- grey painted bedroom set 

2 — wardrobe 

33 -- mahogany wardrobe" 

Extant Wardrobes 



1. WARDROBE, mahogany, mahogany veneer and tulip, late classical, 
1840-50, with mirrored door (replaced), brass candelabra and 
brackets, (MAVA 12) 

Documentation: According to the deProsse/Akers family, this was 
Martin Van Buren's wardrobe, left at Lindenwald when Dr. Birney pur- 
chased the house in 1917. Purchased by HPHA from Ken Campbell and 
donated to NPS in 1975. 

Conclusion: This wardrobe is of the correct period and style to have 
been used by Van Buren at Lindenwald. 

2. WARDROBE, poplar with painted decoration, late classical 
(country), 1830-40 (MAVA 243) 

Documentation: Given to NPS by Ken Campbell in 1978, this wardrobe 
was confirmed by the deProsse/Akers family as a Van Buren piece left 
in Lindenwald. 

C onclusi on: This wardrobe is of the proper period for Lindenwald. 
The condition of the piece is such that it should be used in a sec- 
ondary bedroom. 



136 



3. WARDROBE, mahogany veneer on undefined wood, late classical, 
1830-40 (MAVA 244) 

Documentation: Given to NPS by Ken Campbell in 1978, this wardrobe 
was confirmed by the deProsse/Akers family as a Van Buren piece left 
in Lindenwald. 

Conclusion: This large wardrobe is of the proper period for Linden- 
wafcrTor use in a large bedroom. 

4. WARDROBE, painted grain wood, late classical, 1850-60 
(MAVA 245) 

Documentation: Given to NPS by Ken Campbell in 1978, this wardrobe 
was confirmed by the deProsse/Akers family as a Van Buren piece left 
in Lindenwald. 

C onclusion ; This wardrobe is of the proper period for use in Linden- 
wald, preferably in the addition. 

5. WARDROBE, mahogany veneer, oak and poplar, mirrored door, 
late classical, 1840 (MAVA 134) 

Documentation: Given to NPS by Ken Campbell in 1977, this wardrobe 
was neither confirmed nor denied by the deProsse/Akers family as a 
Van Buren piece. 

Conclusion: Documentation for the wardrobe is lacking, although the 
simTTanty of this piece to wardrobe #1 above suggests that it might 
have been used at Lindenwald. 

6. LOW WARDROBE, mahogany veneer, poplar and maple, late classical 
(Gothic elements), 1835-45 (MAVA 31) 

Documentation: Said to have been part of the Van Buren furnishings, 

the NPF purchased this piece from Ken Campbell and donated it to NPS 

in 1^75. The deProsse/Akers family did not confirm the presence of 
this piece at Lindenwald. 

Conclusion: This piece is of the proper period and style to have been 
used at Lindenwald but documentation is not strong. 



137 



7. LOW WARDROBE, mahogany veneer, poplar, late classical, 1835-45 
(MAVA 38) 

Documentation : Said to have been part of the Van Buren furnishings, 

the NPF purchased this piece from Ken Campbell and donated it to NPS 

in 1975. The deProsse/Akers family did not confirm the presence of 
this piece at Lindenwald. 

Conclusion : This piece is of the proper period and style to have 
been used at Lindenwald. 



Wardrobes — Summary 

There is one period reference to a wardrobe in Angelica's bedroom at 
Lindenwald. This piece may have been one of the large wardrobes of 
various woods and styles (#2, 3, 4) now in MAVA's collection or 
it may have been one of the "2 Van Buren ward robes in mahogany" 
offered at auction in 1940, which have not been located. 

The wardrobe with the mirrored door (#1) is said to have been used by 
Martin Van Buren at Lindenwald and this is the piece referred to in 
Lynch 's 1929 description of the ex-President's bedroom. 

Other wardrobes of the correct period (#5, 6, 7) were found at Lin- 
denwald in 1975, but their Van Buren association has not been docu- 
mented. 



138 



Accessories 



SUMMARY OF ACCESSORIES REFERENCES 



Category 



Total 



pre-1839 1839-1849 1850-1862 



post-1862 



Books 


34 


3 


14 


14 


3 


Ceramics 


7 





5 





2 


Clocks 


2 


1 








1 


Glass 


10 


2 


6 


1 


1 


Lighting 


10 


5 


3 





2 


Personal 


15 


2 


6 


4 


3 


Pictures 


29 


2 


14 


7 


6 


Sculpture 


6 





1 


3 


2 


Silver 


15 


7 


2 


4 


2 


Textiles 


25 


7 


11 


2 


5 


Communication 


4 


1 


1 





2 


Heating 


9 





4 





5 


Fireboards 


3 





1 





2 


Housekeeping 


3 





2 





1 


Plumbing 


6 





2 


1 


3 


Porch and 












Garden 


4 








1 


3 


Furniture 













Total 



182 



30 



72 



37 



43 



139 



EXTANT ACCESSORIES 



1. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, Kinderhook, N.Y., 
228+ items 

Documentation : A number of non-furniture items associated with 
Martin Tan Buren or his family were purchased from the Columbia 
County Historical Society. The Albert S. Callan collection of 
political materials was donated to NPS in 1978. The textiles were 
all found in Lindenwald and several other items were received from 
Ken Campbell. Ceramics, glass, silver, and other items were largely 
donated by Van Buren descendants, Kinderhook area residents, and 
other individuals in various locations. 

Conclusion : Most of these items are of the proper period to have 
been used by Van Buren and his family at Lindenwald. The furnishings 
will be used as references as period practice suggests and as their 
condition and security permit. 

2. White House, Washington, D.C., 4 items 

Documentation : Powers' bust of Van Buren and Inman's portrait of 
Angelica were bequeathed to the White House by Travis Van Buren, the 
President's grandson. The silver pitcher, part of a threepiece set, 
was given by Angelica's niece in 1913. Healy's portrait of Van Buren 
has been a part of the White House collection since 1858. 

Conclusion : These pieces or copies would be appropriate for use at 
Lindenwald. 

3. Association of the Bar of the City of New York, New York, 
N.Y., 185 items 

Documentation : This collection of books from Martin Van Buren's law 
library was donated to the Association by Silas Brownell in 1904. 

Conclusion : The law books are appropriate for Lindenwald and a loan 
of aTl or part of the collection should be arranged if possible. 

4. Museum Collections, in New York, California, Ohio, Massachu- 
setts, Tennessee, and Washington, D. C ., 20 items 

Documentation : These portraits, sculptures, and ceramics came to the 
museums through various sources. 

Conclusion : Most of these items are not particularly important to 
Lindenwald but could be used if available. 



140 



5. Private Collections in New York, California, Massachusetts, 
Vermont, Ohio, Florida, and England, 114+ items 

Documentation : Many important pieces are in the hands of Van Buren 
descendants, Kinderhook area residents, and other individuals in 
various locations. Documentation is strong for many items. 

Conclusion : Many of these items are important to the interpretation 
of Lindenwald. Every effort should be made to obtain relevant pieces 
through donation, purchase, or loan. 



141 



SUMMARY OF 


EXTANT ACCESSORIES (PIECES) 








Category 




Total 


MAVA 
(strong) 


MAVA 
(poss) 


Private 


Other 
collections 
Public 




Books 




188 


3 








185 NYBA 


Ceramics 




178 


84 





94+ 







Clocks 




2 





1 


1 







Glass 




91 


67 


19 


5 







Lighting 




5 


5 













Personal 




9 


6 





2 


1 Museum [M] 


Pictures 




36 


5 


9 


6 


2 WH, 


14 M 


Sculpture 




8 


1 





1 


1 WH, 


5 M 


Silver 




9+ 


1 





6 


1 WH, 


1 M, 


Textiles 




26+ 


14+ 


12 










Communication 


3 


2 


1 










Heating 




18 


11 


7 










Fireboards 




8 


8 













Housekeepii 


^g 


8 


8 













Plumbing 




5 


5 













Porch & Garden 


2 


1 





1 







Total : 




596+ 


207+ 


49 


116+ 


4 White House 
21 Museums 
185 NY Bar Assoc. 



142 



SUMMARY OF EXTANT ACCESSORIES (PATTERNS/SETS) 



Catego ry 

Ceramics 
Glass 
Textiles 
Silver 



Total MAVA (strong) MWA_(_p_ossJ_ Other 



8 


5 


5 


1 


14 


10 


8 


i 



Total: 



35 



17 



12 



BOOKS/DOCUMENTS 



References 



1. 1814, June 23. G. Caines (H) & MVB (H) (LC-VB; DLC-158) 



to him a conditional 
to be delivered to the 
becomes due, and if at 
in the mean time, no 



"Notes of agreement. . .Mr. Caines... to make 

assignment of his law Library, the possession 

said Martin & to remain in him until The Bond 

that time the same shall remain unpaid, and 

contract be made between the said George and the said Martin for the 

final purchase of the said Library, then it shall be lawful for the 

said Martin, to dispose of the same at public auction...." 

2. 1814, July 8. G. Caines (H) & MVB (H) 

Indenture between GC and MVB witnessed by BFB: "He the said George 
Caines hath granted Bargained sold assigned and set over and Deliver 
in due form of Law unto the said Martin Van Buren all & singular 
the Books, Goods, and Chattels in the Schedule or Inventory...." 
[Inventory, see Appendix B], Many of these books are now owned by 
the Bar Association of the City of New York (see Extant Books , #4, 
below). 

3. 1835, November 13. W. Holland (Conn.) to MVB (W) (LC-VB) 

"I fear the accompanying volume professing to [be] of your life and 
opinions, will be set down to the account of those manifold annoyances 
which men of distinction cannot escape from... I should be very 
grateful for suggestions of any kind which may render a second edition 



143 



more [?]." The book was William M. Holland's Life and Political 
Opinions of Martin Van Buren . Holland sent VB another copy (re- 
vised?) in August 1836 (see Ref. 29, below). 

4. 1841, March 29. R.H. Hammond, Nat. Archives Int. Pub. Bldqs. 

& Grnds. 3016 (Let. Rec'd Vol. 30]" 

"A number of boxes were sent on to New York from the President's 
House, but these boxes contained furniture, glass, books, documents, 
papers, wines, etc., which belonged to Mr. Van Buren and his son 
Major Van Buren. . .extensive library and numberous documents and 
papers " 

5. 1841, November 19. Washington Globe, from New York Commercial 
Advertiser, (Piatt, HRS, p. 64T 

"The ex-President begins the day with a ride of ten or fifteen miles 
on horseback; after breakfast he is engaged with workmen till he is 
tired, and then betakes himself to the library, which he is 
constantly enlarging." 

6. 1842, May 1. - Jan 1st, 1843, "Probable Expenses" (LCVB) 
"Newspapers 100 Books 50" 

7. 1842, Sept. 10. R.B. Gooch to mother (UVaC.L. Chandler 
"Papers) 

"His route in the tour was marked out in pen on a map7000 miles. 
Shook hands with 200,000 (persons?)." See p. 14 quotation. 

8. 1842, April 21. HDG (P) to MVB (L) (LC) 

"Book lately published called Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry." This 
may have been Justus Liebig's Familiar Letters on Chemistry, and its 
Relation to. . .Agriculture. 

9. 1843, June 1. MVB (L) to A.K. Tefft (Savannah, Ga.) (PML) 

"I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your polite note by 
the hand of Mr. Bryant, with the accompanying Second Volume of the 
Collections of the Georgia Historical Society; & beg you to accept my 
best thanks for your friendly attention in the matter." 

10. 1843, October. MVB (L) to G. Bancroft and GB to MVB 
(Proceedings, p. 415, 416, Massachusetts Hist. Soc.) 

MVB requests "Philosophical Dictionary from the French of Voltaire , 2 
vols., Boston, 1836; Bancroft responds by sending English edition 
(1824?) of Philosophical Dictionary in 6 volumes at $5.00. 



144 



11. 1843, October 19. Gideon Welles, Journal (LC-GW) 

"Going out he showed us his library, a large & very fine room very 
well filled with books which, without examining them I thought were 
chiefly law books and state papers." 

12. 1844, December 3. GB to MVB (L) (MHS Proceedings, p. 433) 

"In your library you have the Life of [Henry] Grattan handsomely 
bound with gilt edges." 

13. 1845, October 25. MVB (L) to GW (NY) (LCVB) 

Asks Worth to buy Ingersoll's book [Charles J. Ingersoll's Historical 
Sketch of the Second War between the United States of America and 
Great Britian, published Tn 1845] and a sit of Scott's Waverly 
Novels. 

14. 1846, January 16. W.G. Bryan to L.C. Draper (WHS) 

"I passed some hours in his Library . His collection of books is 
large, & the number of works on all political subjects — essays — 
tracts--statistics--various economies—treatises on Government &c &c 
is immense, even for a statesman— I observed, too, that most of them 
were thumbed, the leaves hastily turned down, & the margins often 
covered with notes & references in his own hand. You can form but 
small idea, from this, of the number of political books, & the amount 
of time he must have consumed in examining them. They embraced very 
imaginable subject of public concern, & emanating from the pens, & 
were printed in the language of authors in most civilized countries. 
One side of the room seemed devoted to works of American Authors, 
exclusively--You can hardly call to mind a modern production that was 
not on his shelves with a line or two from the author, on the blank 
page, presenting it to his acceptance & regards. These notes in the 
characteristic style of the various writers, I found particularly 
interesting— one wd be couched in brief & truly Republican terms, 
another would teem with all the gracious & high sounding epithets of 
Oriental diplomacy— & another— but look at the list of Authors & you 
can fancy what each would naturally say in presenting his favorite 
work to a man like Mr. Van Buren — " 

15. 1849, March 28. HDG (P) to MVB (L) (LC) 

"I send you a pamphlet on 'farming' given me by the author for youhe 
is, like yourself, an amateur farmer who prides himself upon having 
his farm in better order than his neighbors ..." 



145 



16. 1849, June 13. HDG (P) to MVB (L) (LC) 

"I hope you have received my present of a 'Farmer's Encyclopedia' 
which I sent to you from Philadelphia before I left there and that it 
has not taken so long a time in reaching you as happened with the 

shaving soap " The Farmer's Encyclopedia, and Dictionary of Rural 

Affairs, by Cuthbert Johnson, adapted to the United States by 
Gouverneur Emerson, was published in 1844. 

17. 1849, March 30. FPB to MVB (L) (LC-VB #31) 

"Mrs. Martin sent me two little volumes of hymns, one of which I send 
you, as she desired me (if thought worthy of such destination) to 
forward it " 

18. 1851, September 17. J. Jenkins to MVB (L) 

"Some weeks ago I provided a copy of the revised edition of my 'Lives 
of the Governors' to your address. I hope it reached you safely." 
This was Lives of the Governors of the State of New York, by John S. 
Jenkins. 

19. 1852, February 26. MVB (L) to Mrs. Throop, (Princeton Univ- 
ersity — Throop-Martin Papers) 

"Between you and my niece my chances of becoming a good man are not 
as desperate as I feared they were. Every Evening, I find on 
retiring your Book opened for the next morning." 

20. 1852, November 9. HDG to MVB (LC) 

"...1 did not get the books you mentioned (til) yesterday; and just 
as I had put them up, ready to go by mail according to your direc- 
tions. I met Mr. Blair on his way to see you, who promised to 
deliver them--I hope you may have commenced the study of Hydropathy 
even before this letter reached you." 

21. 1855, July 26. T. McElhiney (Pa.) to MVB (L) (LCVB) 

"I sent you a copy of your biography as written by me when you were 
first in England but not knowing exactly how or where to direct it I 
think it quite probable it may never have reached you. I shall send 
you two copies in company with this letter." Thomas McElhiney 's 
Life of Martin Van Bure n appeared in 1853. 

22. 1856, May 10. BFB (NY) to MVB (L) (LCVB #33) 

"I send by Adams' Express vols. 4, 5, & 6 of Bancroft and vols. 1 & 2 

of Prescott's Philip 2d." These were George Bancroft's History of 

the United States and William H. Prescott's History of the Reign of 
Philip the Second (1855). 

146 



23. 1856, May 17. MVB (L) to BFB (NY) (private coll.) 

"I ought to have thanked you for sending me the Bancrofts so 
promptly. I have nearly finished them. . .already, & have much to say 
to you when we meet in regard to the book no part of which had I read 
before. My sister who is staying with me has become interested in 

Prescotts work for which I shall not fail to remunerate you If in 

the course of your visits to the Reading Rooms you happen to meet 
with Gales Annals of Congress do me the favor to look at it and let 
me know what you think of its usefulness before I order it." Gales 
and Seaton's Annals of Congress appeared in 1855-1858. 

24. 1856, December 18. MVB (L) to G.S. & W. Wood (PSC-Hi, Wood 
MSS 7873, cited in Poll, "Report' 7 ! 

"I sent you $6.25 for Roth on movement, already red, & for Fuller on 
Rheumatism & the American Remembrances by Isaacs, the two last please 
to send me. You will oblige me in obtaining from Engd through one of 
your orders if necessary ("Kenesi therapy") on the treatment and 
deseases by movements [by?] A. Georgia. If a translation can be 
procured (Ki nasi pa thy) by Doherty...a discourse on [ ? ] in 
relation to medicine by CO. Sonder." Two of the books referred to 
were Mathias Roth's The Prevention and Cure of Many Chronic Diseases 
py Movements (1851), and Henry W. Fuller's On Rheumatism, Rheumatic 
Gout, and Sciatica (NY 1854, London 1856). The other titles have not 
been identified. 

25. 1857, April 9. MVB (L) to Richard Rush (NYHS, cited in Poll, 
"Report") 

"Mr. Van Buren sends his kind regards to Mr. Rush & [returns] thanks 
for the copy of 'Washington in Domestic Life.'..." 

26. 1858, June 29. MVB (L) to SJT (NY) (NYPL-Tilden Papers) 

"I beg the further favor of you to stop at Stamford & Storrs & buy me 
a set of 'Scott's Family Bible' for family use. They will cost from 
$10 to 15 for the 8 volumes. If you can get them cheaper & better 

anywhere else that is convenient you will of course do so send by 

express & let the Book seller send me his bill." 

27. 1858, October 18. MVB (L) to SJT (NY) (NYPL-Tilden Papers) 

"You have an excellent library but have not time to read & never will 
have. It is to prevent the books from becoming worm eaten that I tax 
you occasionally for the loan of some. For the past including the 
additional numbers of Niles Register accept my thanks. They have 
been placed in a room by themselves & will be well cared for. I want 
to read Cicero's letters to Atticus & his miscellaneous correspon- 



147 



dance by Melmont [Melmoth] I think it is. If you have them, & will 
send them to me by express, they should be returned safely & without 
unnecessary delay. At my time of life I think it unwise in general 
to buy books for a single perusal that I can borrow without inconven- 
ience to those who have them." William Melmoth's translation of 
Marcus Tullius Cicero's Epistles to Atticus was published in London 
in 1829. There were several 19th century editions of Letters of 
M.T. Cicero to Several of his Friends . 

28. 1855-1858. MVB (L) to SJT (NY) (NYPL-Tilden Papers) 

"I send you a dollar for the [Book]. If it has not been sent please 
add the 'Annals of Congress' & I will be in [?] of the World." Gales 
and Seaton's Annals appeared year]y from 1855 to 1858. 

29. 1860, January 18. MVB Will 

"My miscellaneous library is intended to be included in this bequest 
[to STVB], but not my law library, which I bequeath to my son John." 

30. 1861, January 31. JVB (NY) to MVB (L) (LC-VB) 

"The books were mailed to you before I received your letter & I hope 
you find them as interesting as the previous volumes. . .Claiborne. . . 
the extract I have seen published from his book I do not think compli- 
mentary. " 

31. 1862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man (1929) p. 544 
"On the top of the other [chest of drawers] is a Bible." 

32. 1867. MVB. Inquiry into the Origins and Course of Political 
"Parties: Introduction 

"The citation from Cicero on the title-page was found on Mr. Van 
Buren's table, in his library, extracted in his own handwriting; 
whether only as a terse declaration of the law by the spirit of which 
his pen was guided, or as a possible motto for his complete work, is 
not known." The work from which MVB quoted— Cicero's De Oratione -- 
may well have been in his own library. 

33. 1913. H. Peckham, History of CM. Van Buren, p. 165 

Re: Alida Van Buren, daughter of Nicholas Van Buren, b. 1832; m. 
Peter Low; no children. "In 1852, Alida visited Lindenwald, at 
Kinderhook, N.Y., with her father, and she now has two books given 
to her at that time by the ex-President, with his autograph in each." 



148 



34. 1936. MVB Exhibition Catalog (The National Savings Bank, 
"Albany) 

"Item 20 William M. Holland's 'Life and Political Opinions of Martin 
Van Buren' bearing inscription 'Martin Van Buren with the high con- 
sideration and respect of the compiler, August, 1836.' Loaned by 
Mrs. L. Gordon Hamersley." 

Extant Books/Documents 

1. The Constitution of the United States and the State of New 

York ..., cover stamped: "His Excellency Governor Van Buren," 
T82~9 (MAVA 159) 

Documentation : This small volume printed by Croswel 1 and Van 
Benthuysen in Albany was presented to Governor Van Buren in 1829 by 
Mr. M. Burt, Deputy Clerk (NYS Legislature?). The book was given to 
the Columbia County Historical Society by an unknown donor prior to 
1974 and was purchased by NPS in 1978. 

Conclusion : This book was probably among Van Buren 's possessions at 
Lindenwald and would be appropriate there, although the size of the 
volume may make it impracticable to display in the library. 

2. United States Official Register , cover stamped: "The Vice 
President of the United States," c. 1833 (MAVA 170) 

Documentation : This book, presented to Van Buren while Vice 
President, was purchased by NPS from CCHS in 1978. The original 
donor is unknown. 

Conclusion : Same as #1. 

3. The Life of Martin Van Buren by David Crockett, signature: 
"M Van Buren," c. 1837 (MAVA 216) 

Documentation : This book, published by Robert Wright in Philadel- 
phia, was among the Albert S. Callan collection of memorabilia 
donated to NPS by CGCC in 1978. 

Conclusion : Same as #1. 

4. 185 volumes from the "Library of Martin Van Buren," various 
authors and titles, 17thl8th centuries, Association of the Bar 
of the City of New York 

Documentation : These primarily English law books were donated to the 
Association in 1904 by Silas Brownell. It is not known how Mr. 



149 



Brownell acquired them. See list in Appendix F. Most of these 
titles were included in the law library Van Buren acquired from 
George Caines in 1814 (see References 1 and 2, above), 

Conclusion : These volumes were part of Van Buren 's law library at 
Lindenwald, though since rebound, and would be most appropriate for 
use in room 111. 



Books/Documents- -Summary 

Visitors to Lindenwald often commented on Van Buren' s extensive col- 
lection of books and documents which consisted chiefly of legal, his- 
torical, biographical, and political works. Although Van Buren's law 
library alone may have numbered more than 750 volumes, as indicated 
by the 1814 agreement between Van Buren and George Caines, only 185 
legal volumes have survived in the collection of the Association of 
the Bar of the City of New York (#4) and three other books owned by 
Van Buren are now in MAVA's collection (#1, 2, 3). 

There are occasional references in correspondence to religious, 
literary, agricultural, and medical texts, but none of these books 
from Van Buren's "miscellaneous library" have turned up. 



CERAMICS 
References 

1. 1839, June 14. "Furniture of the President's House," p. 40 

Feb'y 18: 

2 doz. rich cut tumblers $14.00 

1 dozen gold band China plates 10.00 

April 12: 

2 dozen willow plates 2.75 

3 dozen blue printed bowls and saucers 9.00 
2k do do mugs 3.12% 
k do do bowls 1.12% 
2 ao do pitchers 2.00 

2 pairs med. salts 2.50 

3 wil low dishes 4.50 
2 sets blackhandled knives and forks 5.00 
6 edged dishes 4.50 
1 dozen China gold band bowls and saucers 10.00 
1 do do slop 2.00 



150 



2. 1841, July 26. JVB (A) to MVB (L) (PSUADH) 

"I have bought you a China tea pot & I have taken the liberty of buy- 
ing you half a dozen (3 pairs) of bedroom candles of the newest 
fashion. They are of china and readily cleaned with soap & water. 
They are very pretty & cost 12/ a pair so you owe me $4.50 & I don't 

know what P.S. The teapot & candlesticks go down in the 

Rockland today to your address, care of Butler & Vosburgh, Stuyvesant 
Landing." 

3. 1844, February 6. Account MVB with LS Rexford (LCVB) 
Repair "Teapot 2/25" 

4. 1845, January 4. MVB (L) to JKP (MORR) 

"There is not a house in the country where there has been so much 
destruction of china & glass as in mine . . . the female waiter . . . 
had broken the principal part of a very beautiful tea & breakfast set 
which I valued above everything in the House. So much so that I have 
actually sent to Paris to have former trespasses repaired by 
additions of the same articles which I have never been able to find 
anywhere except in the President's House." 

5. 1848, November 27. MVB (L) to Angelica (NY) (MAVA #702) 

"Give yourself no further trouble about the Vegetable Dishes. I may 
be able to get them of my Albany man & if not I can very well do 
without them until spring." 

6. 1936. MVB Exhibition Catalog (The National Savings Bank, 
Albany) 

"Item 9 Plate of a dinner service made for Martin Van Buren while 
President and used by him in the White House. Loaned by John Van 
Buren Duer, Esq. Great Grandson of Martin Van Buren." 

7. 1936. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weiq, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

25 — Van Buren 's coffee pot 
26--0ne of Van Buren's plates 

Extant Ceramics 

1. DINNER PLATES (8), French porcelain, white with gold bands and 
"VB" monogram, marked "Rihouet, Rue de la Paix," 1830-40 (MAVA 
162-169) 

Documentation : These plates, reputedly used by Martin Van Buren in 
the White House, descended in the family of Smith T. Van Buren and 
were donated to CCHS in 1944. Purchased from the Society by NPS in 
1978. 

151 



Conclusion : The plates are of the correct period to have been used 
by Van Buren in the White House and later at Lindenwald. However, 
the monogram appears to be of a later date and was probably added by 
Van Buren descendants. The plates match a large set of dinnerware 
also having a Van Buren association in a private collection (#8). 

2. TEAPOT and SUGAR BOWL, porcelain, white with gold bands, 
1830-40 (MAVA 160-161) 

Documentation : These pieces were given by the Misses Agnes and Sarah 
Van Alen to CCHS in 1938 and were purchased by NPS in 1978. 

Conclusion : Although these pieces are not marked, they appear to be 
French and to match the eight dinner plates (#1). 

3. COFFEEMAKER, porcelain, brass, and glass, white with gold and 
blue bands, mid-nineteenth century (MAVA 728) 

Documentation : Donated to NPS in 1982 by Jeanne Akers and William 
deProsse, the coffeemaker is said to have been used by Van Buren at 
Lindenwald (Ref. 7). 

Conclusion : Markings on the base have not been identified; however 
the coffeemaker is probably French and is a type used during the Van 
Buren period. The porcelain is similar to but not identical to the 
other Van Buren pieces. 

4. DINNER PLATE, ironstone, blue and white, marked "T & J Mayer, 
Longport, Non pareil," 1836-40 (MAVA 863) 

Documentation : Found in Lindenwald attic in 1978. 

Conclusion : The plate is of the correct period to have been used by 
Van Buren at Lindenwald; however, it does not match other extant Van 
Buren ceramics. It should be retained for further study. 

5. DINNER SERVICE (68 pieces), ironstone, blue and white, marked 
"Amoy, Davenport," 1820-60 (MAVA 1040-1107) 

Documentation : Donated to NPS in 1983 by Mr. Charles Buschman whose 
great-great-aunt Hannah Walker supposedly purchased the set at a 
Martin Van Buren estate sale c. 1940s. 

Conclusion : This set is of the proper period to have been used by 
Van Buren at Lindenwald. A single matching plate, also with a Van 
Buren association, is in a private collection (#6). 



152 



6. DINNER PLATE, ironstone, blue and white, marked "Amoy, Daven- 
port," 1820-60 (private collection) 

Documentation : This plate was given to Clementine deProsse c. 1930 
by a farmswoman in Ghent, New York, who said it had passed in her 
family and had originally belonged to Martin Van Buren. 

Conclusion : This plate matches in pattern and markings the 68 piece 
set of ironstone (#5). 

7. SET OF BLUE WILLOW CHINA, no description available, date 
undetermined (private collection) 

Documentation : This set, owned by a museum in California, supposedly 
was used by Van Buren at the White House. 

Conclusion : Further investigation is needed to determine if the set 
has any relation to Lindenwald. 

8. DINNER SERVICE (93 piece), porcelain, white with gold bands 
with "VB" monogram, 1830-40 (private collection) 

Documentation : This set is owned by a family in the New Paltz, N.Y., 
area and is said to have been used by Martin Van Buren at the White 
House. 

Conclusion : This set appears to match the eight dinner plates (#1), 
but further investigation is needed to determine if the markings are 
the same. 

9. PAIR OF POLYCHROME DELFT VASES, c. 1850 (MAVA 1169-1170) 

Documentation : The vases were purchased in September 1985 by NPS 
from Alfred LeMon, who claimed they had come from Lindenwald. Mr. 
LeMon purchased the vases from a Mr. Segal at an auction in Albany in 
the late 1960s. 

Conclusion : The vases are of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

10. POLYCHROME DELFT JAR WITH LID, c. 1850 (MAVA 1172) 

Documentation : Purchased by Alfred LeMon from Mr. Segal's Albany 
auction, this vase, also said to be from Lindenwald, was donated by 
Mr. LeMon to NPS in September 1985. 

Conclusion : The vase is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 



153 



11. JAR WITH LID, multi-colored quasi-oriental motif, possibly 
1850-60 (MAVA 1173) 

Documentation : Same as 1172 (#10, above). 

Conclusion : The jar is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 



Ceramics — Summary 

The document "Furniture of the President's House" prepared for the 
27th Congress in 1842, indicates that articles of "gold band China" 
were purchased during Van Buren's administration. These articles 
might well have a connection with the French-made white and gold 
porcelain extant in MAVA's and a private collection (#1, 2, 8). At 
least some of this china (#1) descended in the Van Buren family and 
was undoubtedly used at Lindenwald as well. 

"Willow" china was similarly purchased for the President's House in 
1839 and the extant blue and white sets (#5, 6, 7) might have some 
connection. Van Buren ordered glassware, presumably for his own use, 
from Davenport & Co. in 1839 and it is possible that ironstone china 
such as the "Amoy" (#5, 6) was ordered from the English company at 
that time. 

The china teapot and candlesticks ordered by John Van Buren for his 
father in 1841 have not survived, nor have any "vegetable dishes" 
aside from those in the sets previously mentioned. 

Although there is no period documentation for the four delft vases 
(#9-11), they could have been acquired by Van Buren when he visited 
Holland and England in 1853-55. 

The "tea and breakfast set" which Van Buren highly valued and which 
was broken by a Lindenwald servant in 1845 has not been identified 
although the reference indicates it was French and may have been 
first used dt the President's House. 

Note: Numerous ceramic sherds of various types, including stoneware 
and porcelain, and patterns dating from the 18th and 19th centuries, 
have been found through archaeological excavations and the collection 
of surface salvage. These sherds have not yet been studied in detail 
and are not included in this report. See "Historic Structure Report: 
Archeological Data Section, February 1983" for a preliminary 
analysis. 



154 



I II 



CLOCKS 
References 

1. 1829, September 8. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I was favorably inclined to the first round clock at sound price — I 
wish you would ask John to send it to me through a draft on the Bank 

2. 1906, February 22. Ernest P. Hoes, quoting Peter V.B. Hoes 
"in The Columbia Republican (MAVA files) 

"One day soon after he (VB) had settled at Lindenwald, a caller was 
approaching his comfortable surroundings and remarked: 'Ah, I see, 
sir, you have an old fashioned Dutch clock in the hall!' 'Yes, 
certainly,' he said; 'John was determined I should have one, and 
picked it up in Chatham street. 

Extant Clocks 



1. SHELF CLOCK, mahogany veneer and maple, late classical, with 
painted decoration and engraved portrait of Martin Van Buren 
glued to glass, Northrup & Smith, North Goshen, Connecticut, 
1833-36 (MAVA 130) 

Documentation : Purchased by CCHS c. 1933 from H.P. Frear, the clock 
was reputedly owned by the Van Buren family. NPS acquired the clock 
from the Society in 1977. 

Conclusion : There is no documentation for the clock's having been 
owned by the Van Buren family and there is no indication that the 
clock was at Lindenwald. However, the clock, which bears a portrait 
of MVB, could be used because of its Van Buren association. 



Clocks--Summary 

No "round" clock associated with MVB has survived nor has the "Dutch" 
clock mentioned in the 1906 article. The shelf clock in MAVA's col- 
lection (#1) is an interesting bit of political memorabilia, with a 
weak "Van Buren family" association. 



155 



GLASSWARE 



References 



1 • 1 829, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 

"Those small fluted decanters sold for 3 dollars a pair which I fear 
was a sacrifice. There still remain 2 large fluted decanters, 2 
glass pitchers, 2 claret pitchers & 4 salt sellers upon which the 
highest bids were for the first 17 shillings a piece, for the 2nd $4 
a pair, for the 3rd $2h a piece & 4th 9 shillings a piece. I rather 
think I shall let Croswell take the lot at those prices." 

2. 1829, August 15. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I have explained myself to John after the subject of Decanters--The 
Decanters which I have & to which I directed him to make additions 
are plain fine glass not cut. Let the Tumblers & glasses correspond 
& get them in such numbers as you think I shall want. I have none 
now. " 

3 . 1839, June 25. Inv oi ce for MVB (Pres. of US), Davenport Co. 
( England) (LC-VB ) 



"London, 82 Fleet St. 25 June 1839. Bot. of Davenport Co., Manu- 
facturers of Earthenware, China & Glass, Longport, Staffordshire/ 
Warehouse, Canning Place Liverpool 

24 Small Wine Glasses, Engraved 'Queens pattern' 
24 Large " 
24 Claret 

24 Liqueur " 

24 Hock "Topaz 

24 Flat Champagne " 
24 Water Carafes & Tumblers 
24 Wine Glass Coolers 
2 Quart Jugs 
4 Goblets 

2 Quart Globe Decanters 
Strong Iron bound Case 



Nemours 



Queens pattern 



Charges on the above P British Queen Steamer 

addressed by order of Jno Van Buren Esq to his father 
The President of the United States 
(for the President's House) 
care of Jessee Hoyt Esq 

New York 
Shipped P British Queen Steam Ship" 



156 



4 - 1841, March 29. R.H. Hammo nd (W), Nat. Arch. Int. Pub . Bldg. 
&"Grnds. 301 6 (Let. Rec'd Vol . 3 0j 

"...a number of boxes were sent on to New York from the President's 
House but these contained furniture, glass, books. . .which belonged 
to Mr. Van Buren & his son Major Van Buren." 

5 • 1 841, Oct ober 20. Wm Davenport (Liverpool) to JVB (A) (LC-VB) 

"Our London House has requested us to transmit to you the enclosed 
account for glass amt. -L62.12.6 which was sent to the President of 
the United States in June 1839 by British Queen. We should feel 
obliged by your presenting the same to your father in order that it 
may be put in a train for being remitted by an early packet." 

6. 1841, December 3. MVB (L) to G. Newbold (PSU-ADH) 

"My son purchased glass of Davenport & Co. London to the amount of 
-L62.12.6 Sterling which I have for some time desired to pay " 

7. 1845, January 4. MVB (L) to JKP (MORR) 

"There is not a house in the country where there has been so much 
destruction of china & glass as in mine. If those articles are as 
good manure as muslin curtains my farm cannot fail to flourish for 
I have scarcely a field which has not been covered with them through 
the ashery, the great storehouse for broken articles." 

8- 1848, February 9. J VB (A) to MVB (L) (PSU-ADH) 

"The Dr. went off in such a hurry I had not time to tell him the 
history of the ducks. They were not a present from me any more than 
your English glass. " 

9 . 1849-55(?). Thomas Hart Benton, Thirty Years' View (as quote d 
in Peckham's Hist or y of CM. Van Buren, p. 118) 

"I am rather chary of new customs, but after noticing Mr. Van Buren 
dip the tips of his fingers in the bowl and wipe them daintily on his 
napkin, I just raked back my cuffs and took a good plain Republican 
wash." 

1 . 1 862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch a nd a Man (1929), p. 508 

"Van Buren spent New Year's at Lindenwald. . . .On a sideboard in the 
dining room stood rows of bottles and decanters of brandy and Schiedam 
and other potent beverages. .. .On a mahogany console in the great hall 
was the familiar punchbowl, filled with lemonade, and sparkling red 
from a generous dash of Burgundy; flanking the bowl were dishes of 
raisins and figs and the cookies of Van Buren's childhood " 



157 



Extant Glassware 



1. WINE GLASS, ruby etched, date undetermined (MAVA 158) 

Documentation: Given to CCHS by Mrs. Harrison B. Wilson in 1967, 
the glass was reputedly used by Martin Van Buren. NPS purchased it 
in 1978. 

C onclusion : The glass is possibly from the Van Buren period, but its 
date has not been determined and documentation of the Van Buren asso- 
ciation is lacking. It should be retained for further study. 

2. DESSERT SERVICE (66 pieces), green glass, gilt-decorated, 
1840-60 (MAVA 730-795) 

Documentation : This dessert set, probably Bohemian or English, was 
donated to NPS in 1982 by a descendant of Aaron Vanderpoel who pur- 
chased numerous furnishings from the Lindenwald estate c. 1864. 
According to the donor's family tradition, the set was used by Martin 
Van Buren. 

Conclusion : The set is of the proper period to have been used by Van 
Buren at Li ndenwal d . 

3. WINE GLASSES, CUPS and SAUCERS (18 pieces), multi-colored 
glass with raised decoration, late 19th century (MAVA 298) 

Docu mentation : Donated to NPS in 1984 by Ambassador & Mrs. John 
Humes, these wine glasses, cups, and saucers were given to Mrs. Humes 
by her aunt, Mrs. Dickson Walsh. Mrs. Walsh had stated that the 
glassware had been given to her when she was about 10 years old by 
"Mrs. Van Buren" along with a letter stating that the glassware had 
been used by President Van Buren in the White House. Eight matching 
pieces were given in 1984 to the White House and State Department. 

C onclusio n: The glassware is believed to be Bohemian and too late 
to have been used by Van Buren either at the White House or at 
Lindenwald, and the letter from Mrs. Van Buren has not been found. 
The glassware may have belonged to a Van Buren relative or descendant 
and should be retained for further study. 

4. FINGERBOWLS (4), green glass, date undetermined (private 
collection) 

Documentation: The Kinderhook resident who owns one fingerbowl has 
stated that it is one of four such pieces associated with Van Buren 
in the owner's family. 

C onclus ion: Further investigation is needed to determine if these 
fingerbowl s are appropriate for Lindenwald. 



158 









5. WINE GLASS, etched, date undetermined (private collection) 

D ocumentation : This glass descended in the owner's husband's family, 
who used to work on the Lindenwald estate. It is said to be identical 
to glassware used by Van Buren. 

Co nclusio n: Further investigation is necessary to determine if this 
glass is appropriate for Lindenwald. 

6. COMPOTE, clear glass, with star motif, c. 1840 (MAVA 1171) 

D ocumentation : This compote was donated to NPS by Alfred LeMon in 
September 1985. Mr. LeMon purchased the compote and four ceramic 
vases from a Mr. Segal at an Albany auction in the late 1960's. Mr. 
Segal claimed the items had come from Lindenwald. 

C onclusion : The compote is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 
Glassware- -Summary 



The decanters, pitchers, saltcellars, and tumblers referred to in 
1829 (Ref. 1) have not survived. The "Queen's Pattern" and "Nemours" 
glassware ordered from Davenport Co. in 1839 (Ref. 3, 5, 6) has not 
been identified. This English glass, neither a gift to the President 
from son John, nor for official use at the President's House, was 
paid for by Martin Van Buren himself and was probably included in the 
furnishings sent to New York from Washington in 1841. 

A reference to "6 dozen green fingercups" ordered for the President's 
House in 1839 ("Furniture of the President's House," 1842) and the 
fingerbowls in private hands (#4) lend credence to the Benton 
anecdote (Ref. 9). A punchbowl, as mentioned in the Hoes anecdote 
(Ref. 10), is included in the green dessert set (#2). 



LIGHTING DEVICES 
Re ferences 

1. 1829, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 
highest bid on "one pair Mantel Lamps — $45" 

2. 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I shall want to get the following articles from N York- 
1 Chandeliers for the three rooms & a Hall Lamp" 



159 



3 • 1829, September 8. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NY PL-Pres. Papers ) 
"I think the lamps of $115 will do...." 

4. 1829, Oc tober 15. MVB (W) to JAH ( NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"The last box that came from Gardners & which contained also the 
ha rness for the Chandeliers contained a ground glass shade which has 
"Been [_ ] but was [ ] so no more. Can its place be 
supplied? I fear I shall not be able to find a friend of the 
administration here who has genius enough to put the complicated 
machinery of the Chandeliers together." 

5. 1831. Account Book of A. Jackson, "Furniture of Mr. V. Buren 
B ough t for t he Hermit a ge" (The Hermitage) 

"2 Bronze Mantle Lamps" 

6 - 1 841, J uly 26. JVB (A) to MVB (L) (PSU-ADH) 

"I have taken the liberty of buying you half a dozen (3 pairs) of 
bedroom candles of the newest fashion. They are of china . . . . " (See 
Ceramics Ref. 1 for full quotation.) 

7. 1844, June 10. Account of MVB with L.S. Rexford (LC-MVB) 
"1843 June 6 Pr Brass Candlesticks 10/200" 

8. 184 8, November 27. MVB (L) to Angelica (NY) (MAVA #702) 

"I sent you before the size of the pipes of the lamp or in other 
words of the orifice of the Globes ..." 

9 • 1936. I nventory of MVB Furnit u re, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
A ppend ix IV 

#12— "Wrought iron kerosene chandelier" 

10. 1938, February 12. Clemen t ine B. deProsse to Dr. James Leath 
( CCHSl 

"There is also on place the large centre chandelier of wght iron and 
chased bronze ornaments; with oil lamps and chimneys." 



160 



Extant L ight ing Dev ices 



1. SINUMBRA LAMP, brass, etched glass shade, prisms, 1835-45 
(MAVA 124) 

Doc umentatio n: NPS purchased the lamp from Hendler Antiques in 1977. 
Mrs. Hendler" had bought the lamp from a Mrs. Purdy who stated it was 
given to her, as Martin Van Buren's, by Peter Van Buren Hoes, who at 
one time lived across from Lindenwald. 

C oncl us ion : The lamp is of the proper period for Lindenwald. 

2. CANDELABRA (pair), brass with glass prisms, 1830-50 
(MAVA 673, 674) 

Docu menta tion: Candelabra were purchased by NPS in 1981 from John 
Van Buren Hoes through his father, Dr. John Hoes, who stated that 
they were received from the estate of Howard Van Buren and are 
believed to have belonged to Martin Van Buren. Dr. Hoes at one time 
lived in the house across from Lindenwald. 

Conclusion : The candelabra are of the correct period for Lindenwald, 
but were electrified at a later date. 

3. HANGING LAMP, brass, milk glass shade, pressed glass burner, 
c. 1860 (MAVA 132) 

Documentation: Received by NPS from Ken Campbell in 1977, the lamp 
was stated by the deProsse/Akers family to have been in Lindenwald. 

Conclusion: The lamp dates to the end of the Van Buren period. 

4. CHANDELIER, iron, c. 1850, fitted with four kerosene burners 
marked "E. Miller Patd, Julv 21, 1863"; glass globes unmatched 
and shades missing (MAVA 22) 

Documentation: The deProsse/Akers family states that this chandelier 
hung in the hall at Lindenwald and it appears in c. 1917 and 1930's 
photos (Figs. 6, 7, 8) in that location. Purchased by NPF from Ken 
Campbell in 1975 and donated to NPS. 

Co nclusion : Although the kerosene burners bear the patent date of 
1863, the chandelier dates somewhat earlier and could have been used, 
probably with whale oil, during the Van Buren period. 



161 



Lighting Devices—Summary 

Correspondence (Ref. 2) indicates the presence of "Chandeliers" and 
a "Hall lamp" in Van Buren's Washington residence. The chandelier 
and hanging lamp extant in MAVA's collection (#3, 4) post-date the 
1829 reference and may have been purchased especially for Lindenwald. 
The 1848 reference (#8) to the "orifices of the globes" may refer to 
the four-light iron chandelier (#4). 

The "2 Bronze mantel lamps" purchased from Van Buren by Andrew 
Jackson in 1831 could be the "pair Mantel lamps" which remained 
unsold from Van Buren's Albany household in 1829 (Ref. 1, 5). 

The pair of brass candlesticks referred to in 1843 (Ref. 7) have not 
survived nor have the china "bedroom candles" mentioned in 1841 
(Ref. 6). 



PERSONAL ACCESSORIES 
References 

1. 1829, September. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"John . . . wants more & better pens & the price of them so he can 
pay which you know is an affair of principle with him. Try a gold 
one. Such were Mr. Jefferson's." 

2. 1836, November 5. C. Van Buskirk (KY) to MVB (W) (LC-VB #16) 

"As a testimonial of my high regard, not only for your political 
character, but your private worth, I herewith send you a gold mounted 
cane, which I trust may assist in supporting you, in ripe Old Age 
after filling the highest office of your Country's gifts for which 
I deem you entirely qualified." 

3. 1843, August 24. Angelica to her mother (LC-ASVB) 

"But first in her [Mary Mac's] affections of all things stands whist 
...it amuses me to hear that the Ex takes her for his partner 
frequently & still more surprising to hear never scolds " 

1843, December 6. Ibid. 

"The Ex-P has lent me the gold snuff box in which the freedom of the 
City of N York was presented him to contain my treasure—meet casket 
for it as far as the splendor of the case goes...." See Ref. 12. 



162 






1843, October 9. Ib id. 

"Mary Jane & Lucretia left this morning after a very agreeable visit 
you would have laughed to see the Ex & me playing Whist with them on 
Saty morning, neither of them having ever attempted to play but once 
before. It was slow work." 

4. 1 844, June 10. Account of MVB with L.S. Rexford (LC-VB) 

"1843 June 6 Rep. umbrella 

Aug 25 Rep. umbrella 37 

Sept 18 do for MVB June 1/6 19 . . . 

Dec 30 Rep. jewel for MVB June 17/2 . . . 
1844 (Jan) 26 (Rep) spectacles 1/11 19 . . . 

(Feb) 21 watch Rep. 

Pencil points 6 for AVB 6/6 

Mar 11 mend pencil 2/points 2/4.50" 

5. 1845, March 29. S. Tilden (NY) to MVB (L) (LC-VB) 

"I have bought and directed to be sent by the first sloop to 
Stuyvesant the two fishing rods. One of them you will find to be 
very long, but I thought I would execute this commission literally 
since I had concluded to exercise a liberal discretion in regard to 
your other trust." 

6. 1845, November 6. MVB (L) to Mrs. BFB (LC) 

"A friend has presented me with a beautiful box, paper, & envelopes 
& you have the first fruits of his generosity." 

7. 1849, June 13. HDG (Ph) to MVB (L) (LC-VB) 

"I hope that it [a book] has not taken so long a time in reaching you 
as happened with the shaving soap— of which by the by, you must let 
me know when you need a fresh supply." 

8. 1849, November 7. Peter Graham (NY) to MVB (L) (LC-VB #31) 

"The enclosed hat I lately received with a quantity of others from 
England & despairing of ever finding a purchaser with a head suffic- 
iently large to fit it & having understood that you had the largest 
head of any man in this state, I enclose it to you hoping that it may 
prove of great service & be the means of protecting your venerable 
head & its staunch Democratic Principles from the storms & tempests 
that have lately been so thickly gathering around it." 



163 



9. 1856, April 26. MVB (L) to BFB (NY) as quoted in Frisbee, 
Friends of the Family, Butler-Van Buren 

". . . please make my apology to dear Lizzie for carrying away the 
hair brush with which she supplied me. I was on the verge of re- 
turning it by John when Smith interfered and protested against the 
act as a failure in gallentry, insisting that I was bound to retain 
it as a keepsake. Whereupon I yielded to his better knowledge in 
such matters." 

10. 1856, May 7. MVB (L) to BFB (NY) (LC-VB) 

"The package you gave me was pocket handkerchiefs instead of the 
gloves. " 

11. 1856, May 17. MVB (L) to BFB (NY) (private collection) 
"Send my glasses up to Smith at Mrs. Irving' s." 

12. 1860, January 18. MVB Will (Columbia Co. Courthouse ) 

"Fourthly — I give to my grandson Singleton Van Buren a gold snuff box 
presented to me with the Freedom of the City by the Corporation of 
the City of New York " See Ref. 3. 

13. 1930, March. (NY Times) 

"Antiques exposition at the Grand Central Palace. . .President Van 
Buren's riding crop was shown yesterday in Robert Abel's 'Little 
Treasure Shop.' It is more than 100 years old and a secret catch on 
the handle releases a small sword that slides out the leather scabbard." 

14. 1936. MVB Exhibition Catalog (National Savings Bank, Albany) 

"Item 8 Gold pencil used by Martin Van Buren when Minister to the 
Court of St. James. Bequeathed the Columbia County Histor- 
ical Society by the late Howard Van Buren Esq. [Extant, 
see #3, below.] 

Item 25 Martin Van Buren's snuff box. Loaned by Mrs. F. Livingston 
Pell, Great Granddaughter of Martin Van Buren. 

Item 26 Martin Van Buren's watch and fob. Loaned by Mrs. F. 
Livingston Pell. [Extant, see #9, below.]" 

15. 1936. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

#6— "Hat box" 



164 



Extant Personal Accessories 



1. POCKET WATCH, gold, with engraved portrait of Martin Van 
Buren, marked "M.J. Tobias, Liverpool," 1840-50 (MAVA 74) 

Documentation: This Swiss-made pocket watch was given in 1975 to 
CCHS to hold for Lindenwald by Sidney Schimmel, a collector in Los 
Angeles, CA. The engraving was taken from Inman's 1829 portrait. 

Conclusion: Although the watch was not owned by Van Buren, it might 
be used at Lindenwald for special exhibits. 

2. POCKET WATCH, gold engraved, marked "A.C.," mid-19th century, 
(MAVA 154) 

Document ation : Purchased by NPS from CCHS in 1978, this Swiss-made 
watch was reputedly given to the Society in 1936 by Howard Van Buren, 
a collateral descendant of Hannah Hoes Van Buren, and is believed to 
have belonged to Martin Van Buren. 

Conclusion: The watch is believed to date between 1820 and 1880 and 
it could have belonged to Van Buren. It would be appropriate for use 
at Lindenwald for special exhibits. 

3. PENCIL, gold, amber stone, marked "F.T. & S.," 1830-40 
(MAVA 154) 

Documentation: This pencil was a bequest to CCHS from Howard Van 

Buren and was reputedly used by Martin Van Buren at the Court of St. 

James in London in 1831. NPS purchased the pencil from the Society 
in 1978. See Ref. 14, above. 

Conclusion: The pencil would be appropriate for use at Lindenwald 
for special exhibits. 

4. HATB0X, leather, mid-19th century (MAVA 97) 

Docjjmen^ajtion: This hatbox was purchased by NPS in 1977 from Ken 
Campbell who claimed it was Van Buren's. It may be the one listed 
in the 1936 inventory (Ref. 13). 

CQH?.lu_s_ioi! : This hatbox is appropriate for use at Lindenwald in Van 
Buren's bedroom. 



165 



5. EMBROIDERY CASE, 1810-15 (MAVA 155) 

Documentation: This case containing various sewing implements 
reputedly belonged to Mrs. Martin Van Buren. It is not known who 
gave the piece to CCHS, although it might have been included with 
items bequeathed to the Society by Howard Van Buren in 1936. NPS 
purchased the case from the Society in 1978. 

Conclusion: The case would be appropriate for special exhibits at 
Lindenwald. 

6. BEADED PURSE, c. 1815 (MAVA 157) 



Documentation: Bequeathed to CCHS by Howard Van Buren in 1936, this 
"miser's" purse reputedly belonged to Mrs. Martin Van Buren. NPS 
purchased the purse in 1978. 

Co nclusion : The purse cannot be exhibited due to its extremely 
fragile condition. 

7. WALKING STICK, hickory, silver mounted, marked "M. Van Buren 
for the next President," "ANDREW JACKSON," c. 1836 (private 
col lection) 

Documentation: This walking stick or cane was acquired by the Ohio 
"ownePs great-grandfather during the Civil War (Ref. 2, above). 

Concl usio n: It is not known who originally owned the cane, however 
Tt would be a good interpretive piece and could be used at Lindenwald 
for exhibits. 

8. LAP DESK, mid- to late-19th century (private collection) 

Documentation: The Vermont owner stated that the lap desk had been 
given to her husband by his mother who told him that it once belonged 
to President Van Buren. 

Conclusion: The mother's grandmother was a Van Buren, but there does 
not appear to be a connection with the family of Martin Van Buren. 
The lap desk appears to be of the correct period for Lindenwald and 
would be appropriate for use there. 



166 



9. WATCH and FOB, gold, marked "MVB," date undetermined (Museum 
of the City of New York) 

fJocjMentatjon: This watch and fob were given to the Museum in 1953 
by~ Mrs. Francis Livingston Pell, a great-granddaughter of Martin Van 
Buren, who had loaned it in 1936 to the Van Buren exhibition at the 
National Savings Bank, Albany (Ref. 14, above). 

Conclusion: The watch and fob would be appropriate for special 
exhibits at Lindenwald. 



Personal Accessories - -Summary 

^Jery few personal accessories associated with Martin Van Buren and 
his family have survived. The MAVA collection has only five such 
items (#2-6) plus one commemorative watch (#1). The watch and fob 
listed in the 1936 catalog (Ref. 14) have been in the collection of 
the Museum of the City of New York since 1953. 

The gold snuff box used by Angelica Van Buren for her "treasure" (a 
lock of Emperor Napoleon's hair), in 1843 (Ref. 3) and later be- 
queathed to her son, Singleton, may have been the one listed in the 
1936 exhibit catalog (Ref. 14), although the latter was owned at 
that time by a descendant of Smith T. Van Buren. In any case, no 
snuff box associated with Van Buren has been located. 

The gold mounted cane sent to Van Buren in 1836 (Ref. 2) has not been 
located. However, a silver-mounted walking stick commemorating Van 
Buren and Andrew Jackson survives in a private collection (#7). 

Other personal articles such as spectacles, umbrellas, a hair brush, 
a large hat, fishing rods, and a riding crop mentioned in period and 
post-period references have not been identified or located. 



PICTURES/PORTRAITS 
References 

1 . 1 829, April 9 . W. Bowne (NY) to MVB (W) (LC-VB) 

"I have the honor to enclose you a copy of a Resolution of the Common 
Council of the City requesting you to sit for your Portrait to be 

placed in the Gallery of Portraits in the City Hall The Artist 

will of course be selected by yourself and we should be pleased to 
be informed by you of the time and place, when and where the Portrait 
may be taken. " 



167 



1829, April 15. MVB (W) to W. Bowne (NY) (LC-VB) 

"...I shall select the artist agreeable to the [ ] given me 
and enable him to perform his work at the first leisure moment." 

2. 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I shall want to get the following articles from N York--... 4 
Pictures for the receiving room." 

3. 1839, April 19. JVB (London) to MVB (W) (private collection) 

"I ordered a long while ago a proof impression of the print of the 
Queen for you which is a capital likeness — I fear you have subscribed 
too for yourself as I see they send two — If you have no use for it, 
won't you present it to Mrs. Van Rensselaer in my name, if she has 
not one of her own — The painting by Sully is a perfect likeness: & 
this print from it, tho not so good, is excellent." 

4. 1840, November 1. Angelica (Ph) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB; 
DLC-9861) 

"We can't stop for Sully but will write to him to come to Wash--" 

5. 1840, November 24. Angelica (W) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB) 

"I have just got a letter from Uncle Edward answering some enquiries 
I had made about Sully's additional charge for coming here to take my 
portrait--He asks $200 extra which would put it entirely out of the 
question as entirely too extravagant even if I were well enough now 
to sit. I shall decline having it done for the present upon the 
score of my ill health." 



6. 



1840, December 30. Miner K. Kellogg to AJ (LC-AJ) 



"Mr. van Buren proves himself as much the philosopher under defeat as 
he did the patriot and statesman when in the plenitude of his popu- 
larity. I was engaged during the whole presidential battle [1840], 
in placing upon canvas the features of the firm and unflinching 
defender of the rights of the People . [See Extant Pictures/Por- 
traits, #19.]" 

7. 1841, April 23. MVB Jr. (W) to MVB (NY) (PSU-ADH) 

"I sent the picture off yesterday morning to the care of Cozzen's 
American Hotel (let Smith know this) & it may be there with this 

letter as I put it on 'through by railroad.' I have allow'd K 

time to do justice to i t & with my mediocre taste in such matters I 
should say he had without taking into consideration his own asser- 
tions." [The artist was probably Miner K. Kellogg and the subject 
exPresident Van Buren.] 

168 



8 • 1841, May 15. MVB (L) to AJ (H) (LC-VB) 

"I have our friend Col. Earles likeness of you (which is the best he 
took) well framed, & mean to surrender to it, and to an excellent 
likeness of Mr. Jefferson which I have had the good fortune to pro- 
cure for my dining room. The copy of Kel logs' which he made for me 
at Washington, I presented to Mr. Butler on the way up." 

9- 1841, July 3 0. MVB (L) t o AJ (H) (LC-VB) 

"In the absence of the great originals I have you & Mr. Jefferson on 
each side of my door in the dining room, in admirable likeness." 

10. 1841, October 12. JVB (A) to M VB (L) (PSU-ADH) 

"I have paid for you the following sums — ...Picture frames " 

11. 1 843, May 3. J.S . Walker (A) to MVB (L) (LC-V B) 

"Plumbe Daguerrian Gallery... At the instance of Profr Plumbe of New 
York who has recently received a patent... for the production of his 
beautiful photograph with natural coloring... I take the liberty to 
...solicit your approval of our design of gratifying the partial lity 
of many of your fellow citizens by procuring a miniature of yourself 
for the purpose of engraving a portrait from it, whose fidelity can 
never be questioned, and by placing one of the coloured specimens in 
our gallery.... I venture to request of you the favor of naming a time 
when I may wait upon you at your residence or in your vicinity— and 
likewise that you will be pleased to accept specimens of the art of 
yourself and family." 

12. 1843, July 13. Angelica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB) 

"I was better on Saty & meant to have written. . .but was engaged with 
a Daguerreotype man who was taking the Ex & I had Baby sit to him— 
it proved a failure." 

13. 1843, July 21. Angelica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB) 

"Singleton. . .usually points to a picture of Lady Wellesley the Duke 
of Wellington's Mother which hangs over our mantel." 

1 4 . 1846, Januar y 16. W.6. Bryan to L.C. Draper (WHS) 

"As you enter the parlor you see on the right of the door an excel- 
lent painting of Jefferson , on the left of Jackson I saw over 

the mantel piece of the Library an engraved likeness of Mr. Clay, & 
scattered about the room a number of the vilest & funniest caricatures 
of himself. One, I recollect, exhibiting him as a fox hard chased by 
a pack of Whig hounds!!" 



169 



15. 1846, November 18. MVB (L) to FPB (SS) (LC-Blair Family 
"PapersT" 

"Martin has promoted your likeness, by taking you from under Miss 
Fanny Elssler & placing you in a fine frame in the Library under 
General Jackson & next to your friend Clay--" 

16. 1848, July 15. MVB (L) to E. Anthony (NY) (NYPL:5760 Lee 
Kohn s Memorial Coll . ) 

"I have received the engraved portrait of Mr. Clay which you have 
had the goodness to present to me. To show you that you do me but 
justice in believing that political difference would not distract 
from the satisfaction with which I would receive this faithful like- 
ness of an American Statesman & exquisite work of taste, I need only 
say that a likeness of Mr. Clay has for several years occupied a 
place in my library...." 

1 7 . 1850, Ap ril 25. MVB (L) to G. Worth (NY) (LC-VB) 

"...letter from Mr. Poinsett. . .intimates his willingness to sell his 

pictures My own recollection of them is very favourable but I am 

free to say that my judgement in such matters is of precious little 
value... a good opportunity for our friend Mr. Taylor to purchase a 
few for his new House. I certainly would not be of the number who 
would advise him to have anything like a Gallery of Paintings as 
which many people of little or no taste take to show off their magni- 
ficence. But as many scattering pictures as the House ought to con- 
tain to give harmony to the establishment he will if he does not 
already possess them, have to buy. The difficulty in such matters 
with men like Mr. Taylor and myself who do not possess cultivated 
tastes in regard to Paintings is the danger of having our selections 
condemned by our friends for no other reason, too often, than their 
own ignorance upon the point and the want of some authoritative 
opinion to guide their decisions...." 

18. 1852, No v ember 25. FPB (SS) to MVB (L) (LC-VB #32) 

"Pray write a brief note to George W. Chi 1 ds of Philada who sent the 
Jackson engraving to you--It is really a fine engraving of the finest 
portrait extant of the General as he was in 1819 when it was taken-- 
Earl preserves his [ ] after his teeth were gone with an at- 
tempt on his part to put them in — But they are dreadful spiritless 
Daubs ..." 

19. 1852, December. Cowdrey, Am. Acad, of Fine Arts and Am. 
IrT^lJnTo"nTr9T3T 

At the auction of pictures belonging to the American Art-Union held 
in New York City, December 15-17, 1852, fourteen were bought by 
members of the Van Buren family, as follows: 

170 



Bought by Smith, S. T., or S. Van Buren: 

"167. Indian Girl giving drink to a Trapper [by Alfred 
Jacob Miller], 20 x 24. The trapper is on horseback--the 
scene is a broad prairie. $65.00. S.T. Van Buren ." 
[Note: see Extant Pictures/Portraits #24, below] 

"176. View in Paris [by Thomas Doughty], oval 17 x 19^. A 
view in which spires are seen rising from foliage, with the 
Seine in the distance. $85.00. S. Van Buren ." 

"184. A Corner of the Artist's Studio [by James W. Glass, 
Jr.], 17 x 21. A study of easels, plaster casts, etc., with 
a model waiting. $50.00. S. Van Buren ." 

"223. Rabbit Hunting [by Thomas H. Hinckley], 54 x 40. 
Two terriers are watching at a rabbit hole, ready to pounce 
upon the first one that shows his head. On the rocks are 
dead rabbits, a gun, etc. $475.00. Smith Van Buren ." 

"288. The Pets--watercolor [by F. Dewchet or Dewhert], 11 x 
14. A little child sitting on a doorstep with a bowl and 
spoon, dividing his breakfast with a dog and cat. $25.00. 
Smith Van Buren ." 

Bought by __^__ Van Buren (Cowdrey, AAFA & AAU, pp. 256, 397) or 
S. Van Buren (Stearns, "Addendum: Sale of Art-Union Holdings, 1852," 
ibid, pp. 301, 304): 

"83. View of the Drachenfels--Rhine [by Thomas Worthington 
Whittredge], 36 x 26. Wooded hills in the foreground. The 
river in the middle distance, beyond which rise the Drachen- 
fels, on the other side of which the sun is setting. $140.00. 
Van Buren " (Cowdrey) or S. Van Buren (Stearns). 

"128. Indian Falls near Cold Spring [by William Rickarby 
Miller], 20 x 24. A waterfall among thick woods, which fill 
most of the picture. $37.50. Van Buren " (Cowdrey) or 
S. Van Buren (Stearns). 

Bought by John or Jno. Van Buren [not described in full here, since 
John Van Buren did not make his home at Lindenwald as his brother 
Smith did]: 

"51. Fruit [by J. T. Peele]. $47.50." 

"61. Female Head [by Jared B. Flagg]. $40.00." 

"65. Landscape—Composition [by James R. Waterston]. $80.00." 



171 



"93. Passing Shower [by Jasper F. Cropsey]. A pastoral 
landscape. $47.50." 

"233. The Game of Chess [by Richard Caton Woodville]. $65.00." 

"246. What can a young lassie do wi ' an auld man? [by Francis 
W. Edmonds]. $320.00." 

"278. Sandy Beach--Mount Desert [by Richard W. Hubbard]. 
$120.00." 

20. 1858, Apri l 24. MVB (L) to Mrs. HDG (LC-VB) 

"Healy has distinguished himself greatly by my likeness. He finished 
it in a week and would have injured it had he spent another hour upon 
it. The head is decidely better that the one he took at Philadelphia 
and it will be entirely different from all the others in respect to 
its plainess and simplicity not a curtain or an ornament upon it. 

I sent it down to Washington early next week." [See Extant Pictures/ 
Portraits #12] 

21 • 1858, July 1 . JVB (NY) to J.F.H. Claiborne (Miss.) (LC-VB) 

"The photographs of Cambreleng & my father are sent to Clarence Pell 
as you desire — when I get better looking, I will send you mine. 
Brady took my father 1 s-it is a fine specimen of the art & shows well 
the preservation of my father's physical vigor...." 

22. 1 861, October 15. JVB (CS) to MVB (PSU-ADH) 

"The enclosed from Mr. Huntington should be attended to. I have 
written him that I have put the matter in a train to be arranged. 
The painting is what we agree to pay & the frame is reasonable. I 
suggested to Mr. Pruyn that the Trustees might be inclined to furnish 
the frame, but he wrote that he thought we would, on reflection, 
think better to do so & on consulting with Smith I think & yourself 
that course was taken. Will you see about having the account liqui- 
dated & let Smith present it to the Trustees in our names in a suit- 
able manner. " 

23. 1 862. D.T. Lynch, An Epoch and a Man (1929) 

"...plain chest of drawers [in Van Buren's bedroom]. On one of these 
is an unframed portrait of Silas Wright. It is small; and of the 
type our early artists called a cabinet ... In the center of the 
windowless west wall hangs an illuminated tribute to Jackson. On 
either side of this memento of his friend is a silhouette of Van 
Buren. These, too, are simply framed...." 



172 



24. 1891, May 24. G.A. Townsend, New York Sun 

"Van Buren was not a great reader but he loved literary society and 
the engraved picture of the authors of America is in this room, as 
if they were welcome here — Cooper, Bryant, Longfellow, Irving, 
Prescott, Taylor, Willis, and others." [Note: This engraving was 
not published until after Van Buren's death.] 

25. 1898, August. Peter V.B. Hoes, NY Times 

"In his [Van Buren's] chamber I have seen on the hanging texts some 
especially marked, which no doubt, she [his niece, Miss Cantine] had 
striven to impress upon his mind and heart." 

26. 1906, February 22. Ernest P. Hoes, The Columbia Republican 
(MAVA files) 

"A droll instance of his hospitality. . .is given by some wag who once 
found his way to Lindenwald. After the usual salutations the old 
gentleman invited the callers to the sideboard, and set before him 
various articles of refreshment, and then turned away and became 
engrossed in a picture on the wall. 'I know he knew all those pic- 
tures by heart, 1 the thirsty man said afterward, 'but he just did 
that so I could get a good square drink. I call that downright 
politeness and hospitality.'" 

27. 1913. Peckham, History of Cornelius Maessen Van Buren 

"The years of 1853-1855 he spent in foreign travel, and it is related 
that while in Holland he was received in audience by the then King of 

Holland, and given a drawing of the Coat-of-Arms These Arms are 

remembered by persons still living as having hung on the wall of the 
hall at Lindenwald, and one of the grandsons told one of his cousins 
of the incident and this cousin gave to the Editor a cut of the Arms." 

28. 1936. MVB Exhibition Catalog, The National Savings Bank , 
Albany 

"Item 1 Portrait of Martin Van Buren, by Inman from his original 
portrait of Van Buren painted for Miss Theodora Duer at 
the request of Van Buren. Loaned by Alexander Duer Harvey, 
Esq., Great Great Grandson of Martin Van Buren. 

"Item 5 Portrait of Martin Van Buren by Daniel Huntington, painted 
in 1848. Loaned by Miss Sarah G. Duer, Great Granddaughter 
of Martin Van Buren. 



173 



"Item 7 Miniature of Hannah Hoes, wife of Martin Van Buren. Artist 
unknown. Bequeathed the Columtia County Historical Society 
by the late Howard Van Buren, Esq. 

"Item 12 Copy coat of arms of the Van Buren family. Loaned by Or. 
Harriet Van Buren Peckham." 

29. 1936. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weiq, "Lindenwald," 
Appendix IV 

Item 23 "Eulogy to Andrew Jackson which hung in Van Buren' s room." 

Item 24 "Four large steel engravings." 

Extant Pictures/Portraits 



1. MINIATURE PORTRAIT of Martin Van Buren, by Daniel Wagner (1802- 
1888), watercolor on ivory, unsigned, framed, 1846 (MAVA 727). 
The following is written on a piece of cardboard set in the 
frame behind the portrait: "Martin Van Buren From Life in 
1846, For Sale Price $100, by Daniel Wagner, 212 5th Ave. 
New York." 

Documentation : This portrait was purchased by NPS in 1982 from Mr. 
& Mrs. Horatio Adee of Delhi, New York. The portrait descended in 
Mr. Adee's family; there is no further information on it. A minia- 
ture of MVB by Maria Louisa Wagner, Albany (sister of Daniel) was 
exhibited by the artist in 1847 at the National Academy of Design. 
This has not been located. 

Conclusion : This portrait has no apparent connection with Linden- 
wald, but it is an excellent likeness of the ex-President taken 
during his early retirement years by a prominent area artist and 
suitable for an interpretive exhibit. 

2. MINIATURE PORTRAIT of Martin Van Buren, watercolor on ivory, 
signed "T.S.," framed, 1839 (MAVA 946). The following in- 
scription was on a piece of paper taped to the reverse of the 
miniature (removed during conservation): "M. Van Bluen — 
President of the United States of America, T. Sully Pinxt 
1839." 

Documentation : The portrait was purchased by NPS (donated funds) 
from antiques dealer Priscilla Ziesmer of Maiden Bridge, N.Y., in 
1983. Mrs. Ziesmer received the portrait from another dealer in the 
Poughkeepsie area; the provenance of the portrait is not known. 



174 



Conclusion : This likeness of Van Buren was not taken "from life" but 
either from Henry Inman's 1829 portrait or from one of the many prints 
of the Inman portrait made in the 1330s. John Van Buren was in 
London when Thomas Sully (1783-1872) pair ted Queen Victoria's por- 
trait in 1838-39 and it is possible that sone contact was made at 
that time, although the artist of this portrait is believed to be 
Sully's son, Thomas W. Sully, or Thomas Sully, Jr. (1811-1847), who 
often signed his works "T.S." too and who was doing miniatures at 
that time. This portrait has no apparent connection with Lindenwald. 

3. REVERSE PAINTING ON GLASS, portrait of Martin Van Buren, 
unsigned, framed, marked "M van Buren," 1830-40 (MAVA 189) 

Documentation : This portrait was given to CCHS by the National 
Commercial Bank in 1967 and purchased by NPS in 1978. Artist and 
provenance unknown. 

Conclusion : This portrait has no apparent connection with Lindenwald. 

4. MINIATURE PORTRAIT of Hannah Hoes Van Buren, watercolor on 
ivory, artist unknown, framed, c. 1819 (MAVA 171) 

Documentation : This miniature was purchased from CCHS in 1978. It 
had been given to the society in 1936 by Howard Van Buren with the 
following label: "Hannah Hoes, Great Aunt of Howard Van Buren and 
Wife of Martin Van Buren. The hair is her own and that of her 
brother Peter I. Hoes Maternal Grandfather of H.V.B. After her 
death in [1819] three of these miniatures were made for the ex- 
President & this one presented by him to Maria Cornelia Hoes, 
daughter of said Peter I. Hoes & mother of H.V.B. This should be 
given eventually to the Government at Washington, D.C., H.V.B." 

Conclusion : The other two miniatures of Mrs. Van Buren have not 
survived. It is likely that one was kept by the ex-President for 
himself. Although there is no reference to any portrait of his wife 
at Lindenwald, this one may be used as an exhibit item. 

5. MINIATURE PORTRAIT of Martin Van Buren, unsigned, no descrip- 
tion available, date undetermined (private collection) 

Documentation : This miniature is owned by a descendant of Smith T. 
and Henrietta Van Buren who live in California. 

Conclusion : Further investigation is needed to determine if this 
portrait is appropriate for Lindenwald. 



175 



6. LITHOGRAPH of silhouette of Martin Van Buren, "From Life by 
W.H. Brown, lith of E.B. & E.C. Kellogg," 1844 (MAVA 177) 

Documentation : This lithograph was purchased from CCHS in 1978. 
The original silhouette was made in Washington in 1839 and the litho- 
graphs were published in the "Portrait Gallery of Distinguished 
American Citizens" in Hartford, Conn., in 1845. A number of these 
lithographs survive in museum collections. 

Conclusion : A copy of this lithograph may be one of the silhouettes 
referred to by Lynch as having hung in Van Buren' s bedroom. 

7. POLITICAL CARTOONS (7), various subjects, artists, and pub- 
lishers, 1830-50 (MAVA 231-233, 235, 237, 239) 

Documentation : This group of political cartoons depicting Van Buren 
was part of the Albert S. Callan collection donated to NPS in 1978 
by Columbia-Greene Community College. 

Conclusion : These particular pieces do not have a Lindenwald pro- 
venance, but they would be appropriate for use in the library as 
the "caricatures" referred to in 1846 (Ref. 14). 

8. POLITICAL CARTOON, "The Fox Chace," J. Childs, New York, 
c. 1840 (Library of Congress MF 28A) 

Documentation : Provenance unknown. 

Conclusion : This cartoon is believed to be the one described by 

W.G, Bryan in his 1846 letter recalling his visit to Lindenwald 

(Ref. 14). A copy of this cartoon would be appropriate for use in 

the library (Room 111). 

9. LITHOGRAPH, "Our Great Authors, a Literary Party at the Home 
of Washington Irving," marked "A. Chappell Pinxt., published 
by Whitmark & Co., N.Y., T. Sinclairs Litho Phila.," c. 1865 
(MAVA 70) 

Documentation : Purchased by NPF for NPS from Ken Campbell in 1975, 
this print wai among the furnishings left in the house when Campbell 
acquired it in 1957. 

Conclusion : Possibly the print referred to by G.A. Townsend in 1891, 
this lithograph has a Lindenwald provenance but is too late to have 
been used in the Van Buren period. If a pre-1862 version is found, 
it would be appropriate since Van Buren was well acquainted with 
Washington Irving and other American authors of the day. 



176 



10. ENGRAVING, "In Honour of Andrew Jackson," marked "Composed and 
designed by Isaac F. Bragg, Engraved by Theodore Durand, 
Augt 1835,"" New York, 1835 (MAVA 99) 

Documentation: This engraving was purchased by NPS in 1977 from Ken 
Campbell who claimed it was part of the Van Buren furnishings. It 
was listed in Mrs. deProsse's 1936 inventory of Lindenwald as "Eulogy 
to Andrew Jackson which hung in Van Buren 's room" (Ref. 29) and was 
probably the "illuminated tribute to Jackson" referred to by Lynch 
(Ref. 23). 

C onclusi on: This is appropriate for Lindenwald, room 209. 

11. PORTRAIT of ANDREW JACKSON, oil on canvas, no description 
available, date undetermined (private collection) 

D ocumentation : This portrait, possibly by Ralph E.W. Earl (1785- 
1838), is in private hands in Oyster Bay, Long Island. The owner 
obtained the painting from Mr. James Abee, a dealer, who said it 
descended in the family of Mrs. Martin Van Buren. 

Conclusion: Mrs. Smith T. Van Buren (nee Henrietta Irving) was from 
Oyster Bay and it is more likely that the portrait descended through 
her. If so, this may be the portrait of Jackson that Van Buren had 
at Lindenwald (Ref. 8). Further investigation is needed to deter- 
mine if this painting is appropriate for Lindenwald. 

12. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by G.P.A. Healy (1813-1894), 
oil on canvas, signed, framed, inscribed "Painted at Linden- 
wald, April 12, 1858," (White House 858.1336.1) 

Documenta tion : White House records state that this portrait by 
George P. A. Healy was "painted for the White House and purchased by 
the government in 1858 from the artist at a cost of $800" (Ref. 20). 

C onclusion : Although this portrait of the ex-President was painted 
at Lindenwald, it did not hang there but was sent to Washington soon 
after its completion. The portrait does have great interpretive 
value and it, or a copy, would not be inappropriate for exhibit at 

MAVA. 

13. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, oil on canvas, signed "G.P.A. 
Healy/Phila, April 15th/1857," framed (Corcoran Gallery of 
Art 79.12) 

Documen tation : Purchased by Corcoran Gallery of Art with 16 other 
portraits in 1879 from T.B. Bryan, Washington, D.C. "Painted from 
life, and is considered a perfect likeness as well as vigorous work. 
A half length copy by Healy is in the President's House." 



177 



Con clus ion: This is the portrait which Healy "took at Philadelphia," 
however, it is not clear for whom the portrait was originally painted 
nor where it hung. 

14. PORTRAIT of ANGELICA VAN BUREN, by Henry Inman, oil on canvas, 
signed, c. 1842 (White House 890.2061) 



Do cumentat ion: Painted by Henry Inman (1801-1846), this portrait was 
"left to the White House in the bequest of Travis C. Van Buren, son 
of Abraham and Angelica Van Buren. Accepted by the government for 
the White House, 1890." 

Concl usio n: This portrait of Van Buren' s daughter-in-law was prob- 
ably painted in New York and hung in Abraham and Angelica's various 
residences there, rather than at Lindenwald. The portrait does have 
great interpretive value and it, or a copy, would be appropriate for 
exhibit at MAVA. 

15. PORTRAITS of MARTIN VAN BUREN (4), by Henry Inman, 3 signed, 
oil on canvas, c. 1835-40 (Metropolitan Museum of Art 93.19.2; 
New York Historical Society 1959-28; Phil ipse Manor Hall; 
private collection) 

Do cumentation : These four portraits painted by Henry Inman are cur- 
re ntTy~Toc a ted in the New York City area and came to their present 
collections through varous channels. The portraits do not appear to 
have Van Buren family connections, although information on their 
provenances is incomplete. 

Con clusion : These portraits were painted while Van Buren was in 
Washington and a number of prints were engraved from the original. 
They have no apparent connection with Lindenwald, although it is not 
impossible that one of these portraits might have hung there. 

16. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by Henry Inman, no description 
available, date undetermined (private collection) 

Documentation: This painting by Henry Inman is owned by a descendant 
of John Van Buren in New York State and is believed to be the por- 
trait referred to in the 1936 exhibit catalog as having been painted 
for Miss Theodora Duer "at Van Buren's request" (Ref. 28). 

C onclusion : Further investigation is needed to determine if this 
portrait would be appropriate for Lindenwald. 

17. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, oil on canvas, by Daniel 
Huntington (1816-1906), c. 1860? (New York State Office of 
General Services, n.d.) 

Documentation: This portrait by Daniel Huntington now hangs in the 
New York State Capitol in Albany. Provenance unknown. 



178 






Conclusion : There is not sufficient information to determine if this 
portrait has a Van Buren family history or Lindenwald connection. 

18. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by Daniel Huntington (1816-1906), 
no description available, 1848 (private collection?) 

Documentation : This painting by Daniel Huntington was loaned for 
the 1936 Albany exhibit by a great-granddaughter of Martin Van Buren, 
descended through John Van Buren (Ref. 28). The current owner and 
location of this portrait is not known. This was probably the por- 
trait by Huntington loaned by John Van Buren for the National 
Academy exhibition of 1849. 

Conclusion : Further investigation is needed to locate this portrait 
and determine if it is appropriate for Lindenwald. 

19. PORTRAITS of MARTIN VAN BUREN (2), by Miner Kil bourne Kellogg 
(1814-1889), oil on canvas, c. 1840 (Cincinnati Art Museum 
1890.56, and private collection) 

Documentation : See Ref. 6-8. One portrait by Miner Kil bourne Kellogg 
(1814-1889) was donated to the Museum by Charles H. Kellogg, Jr., the 
artist's nephew. The other portrait is still in the artist's family. 

Conclusion : The "copy of Kel log's which he made for me at Washington" 
which Van Buren presented to Butler in 1841 may well have been taken 
from one of these portraits. The two extant portraits apparently 
remained in the artist's possession. If another version is found, it 
would be appropriate for use at Lindenwald as an exhibit item. 

20. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, oil on canvas, unsigned, framed, 
c. 1840 (Kinderhook Memorial Library) 

Documentation: This painting by an unidentified artist, possibly 
Ezra Ames (T768-1836), was given to the Library at the time of its 
dedication in 1933 by Mrs. George Davie in memory of her husband. 

Conclus ion: It is not known how the portrait came into Mrs. Davie's 
possessfon and there is no apparent connection with Lindenwald. 

21. LITHOGRAPH, PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, c. 1846 (National 
Portrait Gallery NPG 78,84e) 

Documentation : This lithograph by an unidentified artist is after 
a daguerreotype by John Plumbe, Jr., and was published as part of 
"The National Plumbeotype Gallery" in 1847. See Ref. 11. 



179 



C onclusion : The artist may be John S. Walker who wrote to Van Buren 
in 1843 "at the instance of Profr Plumbe" to request a miniature 
"for the purpose of engraving a portrait from it." "Coloured speci- 
mens" were promised Van Buren and his family and a copy of this 
lithograph would be appropriate for Lindenwald. 

22. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, daguerreotype, by Mathew Brady, 
case: "Brady's Gallery, 206 & 207 Broadway, New York," c. 
1856 (National Portrait Gallery NPG 76.104) 

Documentation : This daguerreotype by Mathew Brady (1823-1896) was 
purchased from Janet Lehr, Inc. No other information on provenance 
is available. 

Conclusion : This Brady photograph is of the correct date to be the 
one referred to by John Van Buren as showing his father's "physical 
vigor" (Ref. 21). This daguerreotype or a copy of it would be ap- 
propriate for exhibit at Lindenwald. 

23. PORTRAIT of MARTIN VAN BUREN, photograph by Mathew Brady, 
date undetermined (Library of Congress LC USZ62 19608) 

D ocumentation : The date of this widely published photograph by 
Mathew Brady is unknown but is believed to be c. 1857-62. 

C onclusion : A copy of this photograph, now unlocated, was owned by 
Van Buren 's great-granddaughter, Ellen Van Buren Pell. That copy or 
another would be appropriate for exhibit at Lindenwald. 

24. OIL PAINTING, "Indian Girl Giving Drink to a Trapper," by 
Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874), signed "A. Miller" and dated 
1850, 24 x 20 inches. 

D ocumentation : The artist sold this painting to the American Art- 
Union in 1851 and in December 1852 it was bought at the Art-Union 
sale by Smith Van Buren (see Ref. 19). It was sold again, on October 
17, 1980, at Sotheby's New York (Sale 4435M, American & Western 
Paintings, Lot 19, color illus. p. 19 and cover). The present owner- 
ship is not known. 

C onclusion : Efforts should be made to locate and acquire this paint- 
ing, which almost certainly hung at Lindenwald from 1853 to 1862. 



180 



Pictures/Portraits--Summary 

Extant portraits of Martin Van Buren in over 35 museum and private 
collections clearly show that he was the popular subject of numerous 
artists, engravers, and photographers throughout his political career 
and well into his retirement. It is beyond the scope of this report 
to list all of the paintings, prints, and daguerreotypes of Governor, 
Vice President, President, and ex-President Van Buren that were pro- 
duced between 1829 and 1862. Only those having a documented or pos- 
sible connection with Lindenwald are discussed. 

Although there are no references to portraits of Van Buren himself at 
Lindenwald during the historic period, there are a number of 
paintings by well-known artists which could be used in exhibits. 
Those include the portraits by Healy (#12), Inman (#15, 16), Hunting- 
ton (#17, 18), and Kellogg (#19). The miniature portraits by Wagner 
(#1) and Sully (#2) and lithographs such as #6 and #21 and Brady 
photographs (#22, 23) are also recommended for interpretive use at 
MAVA. 

References do indicate that Lindenwald was furnished with "like- 
nesses" of friends or political associates Van Buren admired such as 
Andrew Jackson, Thomas Jefferson, Henry Clay, and Silas Wright. 
Other family members added Francis Preston Blair, Fanny Elssler, Lady 
Wellesley, and Queen Victoria to the list of likenesses adorning 
Lindenwald. None of these particular paintings or engravings have 
been located, although it should be possible to procure other copies. 

The "caricatures" referred to by W.G. Bryan in 1846 are believed to 
be political cartoons produced in great numbers during the period. 
Again, the particular cartoons have not been identified, except for 
"The Fox Chace" (#8). 

In December 1852, Smith and John Van Buren bought a number of contem- 
porary American paintings at the auction dispersing the American Art- 
Union's collection (Ref. 19). Those acquired by Smith probably were 
hung at Lindenwald in the addition or, perhaps, in the main part of 
the house. One of these paintings has been located (#24). Those 
bought by John probably were for his own home in New York City. 



181 



There is little information on the "pictures" other than portraits 
at Lindenwald, although in 1829, Van Buren ordered four unidentified 
"pictures" for the receiving room of his Washington residence and 
in 1850, Van Buren acknowledged that "scattering pictures" gives 
"harmony" to a house. Unfortunately, the references to the engraving 
of the "Authors of America" (Ref. 16), the drawing of the Van Buren 
Coat of Arms (19), and the religious "hanging texts" (17) post- 
date the Van Buren period, as do those to "an unframed portrait of 
Silas Wright," and a silhouette of Van Buren himself (Ref. 20). An 
"illuminated tribute" or "eulogy" to Jackson (Ref. 20 and 22) sur- 
vived in the house until acquired by NPS (#10). 



SCULPTURE 
References 

1 . 1841, December 4. H. Inman (NY) to MVB (K) (DLC-3720) 

"I have been so fortunate to obtain a sight of Mr. Powers' bust of 
yourself and I cannot resist the desire I have to express to you the 
unqualified pleasure it has given me both as a work of Art and as the 
yery best likeness I have ever seen. 

Pray allow me to congratulate you upon the possession of so perfect 

a product from the chizel of an American " Inman included this 

bust in his portrait of Angelica Van Buren, 1842. See Figure 22. 

2. 1 858, August 8. MVB (L) to Mrs. HDG (P) (HSP) 

"I have for some time contemplated getting a competent sculptor to 

come to Lindenwald to take copies of Powers Then your niche will 

be supplied " 

3. 1 858, September 29. HDG (P) to MVB (L) (L C-VB) 

"The Bust!! a hold [?] to the wife. Do not let memoir-writing drive 
it from your memory." 

4 . 1860, January 18. MVB Will (Columbia County Courthouse) 

"Fourthly. . .to my grandson Martin son of Abraham the marble bust 
made of me by Powers, which I had previously presented to his mother 
and now transfer to the son by her direction.... 

Fifthly. I direct my executors to expend four hundred dollars, or 
so much thereof as may be necessary, in obtaining a copy of the bust 
of me by Powers, which copy I give to my grandson Edward Livingston 
Van Buren. " 



182 



5 • 1863 , September 4. JVB (L) to SJT (NY) (NYPL-Tilden Papers) 

"My father left to the Col's son Martin a bust of himself by Powers. 
Smith & I have ordered two copies or as they are to be executed by 
Powers, they will in effect be originals. The cost will be about 
$500, something under. They should arrive in October or November. 
The value of a bust by Powers as a work of Art exceeds the sum 
named. It would be more convenient for me I am sorry to say not to 
take this bust, & I know nobody to whom I would offer it, except 
yourself or would prize it so highly. Please drop me a line to let 
me know if it would be agreeable to you to take it. I need hardly 
[ ] that this is a confidential matter between us." 

6 • 19 36. MVB Ex hib i tion Catalog (The National Savings Bank, 
Albany) 

Item 6 "Bust of Martin Van Buren by Powers. Loaned by the Columbia 
County Historical Society through the courtesy of John Van Buren Duer, 
Esq., Great Crandson of Martin Van Buren." 



Exta nt Sculpture 

1. BUST of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by Hiram Powers (1805-1873), marble, 
1837-40 (White House 890.3751) 

Document atio n: "Left to the White House in the bequest of Travis C. 
Van Buren, son of Abraham and Angelica Van Buren. Accepted by U.S. 
Government for the White House in 1890. This is one of three busts 
of Van Buren done by Powers and possibly the bust which appears in 
the portrait of Angelica Van Buren by Inman. Van Buren sat for 
Powers in Washington, D.C., in January 1836, when Van Buren was Vice 
President. The marble was executed in Florence, Italy" (White House 
catalog records). 

Conclusion: This is undoubtedly the Powers bust bequeathed in Man 
Buren^s 1860 will to his grandson, Martin. When Martin died in 1885, 
the bust apparently passed to his brother, Travis. This bust was at 
Lindenwald during Van Buren 's lifetime. 

2. BUST of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by Hiram Powers, marble, c. 1863 
(MAVA 967) 

Do cumentati on: This bust descended in the family of John Van Buren 
and was purchased by NPS in 1983 from CCHS. 



183 



Conclusion: This is apparently the "copy" John Van Buren had made 
after his father's death. Although the bust was offered to Samuel 
J. Til den in 1863, it apparently stayed in Van Buren family hands 
(Ref. 5). Appropriate for use in Lindenwald in lieu of original 
bust (#1). 

3. BUST of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by Hiram Powers, marble, c. 1863 
(New-York Historical Society 1942.465) 

Doc umentation : Donated to NYHS in 1942 by descendants of Smith T. 
Van Buren, this is the other copy made by Powers himself after the 
ex-President's death (Ref. 5). 

C onclu sion: Smith commissioned this bust probably in compliance with 
the provision of Van Buren' s will which called for the expenditure of 
$400 for a copy of the Powers bust for Edward Livingston Van Buren, 
Smith's son. Identical to the bust in MAVA's collection, this one 
is not needed at Lindenwald. 

4. BUST of MARTIN VAN BUREN, by Erastus Dow Palmer (1817-1904), 
marble, date undetermined (private collection) 

D ocumentation : No information on provenance; current location of 
bust is not known. Letter, Hirschl & Adler Galleries to Superinten- 
dent Stewart, MAVA, November 6, 1980 (MAVA collection source file). 

Conclusion: No apparent connection with Lindenwald. 

5. BUSTS of MARTIN VAN BUREN (2), by Ferdinand or Frederick A.F. 
Pettrich (1790-1872) , plaster, c. 1838-42 (Smithsonian Insti- 
tution (NMAA) xx34; Martin VanBuren School, Kinderhook, N.Y.) 

Do cument ation: No information on provenance except the latter had 
been at the New York State Governor's Mansion until it was presented 
to the MVB school in 1947. 

Co nclusio n: No apparent connection with Lindenwald. 

6. BUSTS of MARTIN VAN BUREN (2), by John Henri Isaac Browere 
(1790-1834), bronze, plaster, c. 1833 (New York State Histori- 
cal Association N-204.61, N-236.40) 

Do cumentation : No information on provenance. 

Conclusion: No apparent connection with Lindenwald. 



184 



Sculpture- -Summary 



Documentation is very strong for the three extant busts of Martin Van 
Buren by Hiram Powers. The original bust in the White House collec- 
tion (#1), executed c. 1837-40, is the bust referred to in Inman's 
1841 letter and it appears in Inman's 1842 portrait of Van Buren 's 
daughter-in-law. The busts in MAVA's collection and in the collec- 
tion of the New- York Historical Society (#2 & 3) by their provenance 
appear to be the copies commissioned by Van Buren 's sons in 1863. 

It is not known if Van Buren himself ever actually proceeded with his 
plan in 1858 to have a "competent sculptor come to Lindenwald to take 
copies of the Powers" for his friends, Mr. and Mrs. Henry D. Gilpin, 
and others. 

No other sculpture is mentioned as having been at Lindenwald and the 
other five extant busts (#4, 5, 6) of Van Buren have no apparent 
connection with Lindenwald. 



SILVER 

References 

1 . 1 829, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 

"All the knives, forks, & spoons were reserved without offering." 

2 - 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"...Plateau (have bought it since) & have some idea of sending by 
Mrs. Rives or Mrs. McLane for a box of knives, spoons etc. I have 
silver spoons & table knives etc. but I suppose I shall want some- 
thing of that sort in addition " 

3. 1829, August 15. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"I shall have my knives & spoons counted & let you know the amount I 
have from which the ladies can calculate how many I shall want." 

4. 1831. Ac count Book, A. Jackson, "Furniture of Mr. V Buren 
B ought for the Hermitage" (LC-AJ #78) 

"8 dozen silver knives 

4 Silver dishes with Tops, silver 

4 Silver wine coolers" 

[See Ref. 10, 14.] 



185 



5 - 1832, April 1. MVB (London) to JAH (NY) (NYPL-Pres. Papers) 

"...I am off for Paris in the morning & I write this principally to 
say that I have sent by the Sovereign Capt. Champlain to your care 
three boxes Nos. 13, 24, & 25 containing plate & private [papers?] 
which I beg you to keep for me till my return." 

6. 183 6, Oct ober 19. MVB (A) to BFB (LC-VB trans.) 

"That you may be able to carry into effect the design you intimated 
of using my house at least for a time, I send you the keys of the 
silver which is at the Kanes." 

7 - 183 7, Mar ch 30. AJ (H) to MVB (W) (quoted in Bassett, 
Correspond ence of Andrew Jackson, pp. 467-8) 

"My little grandson answers, when asked who gave him the silver cup, 
my godfather, Mr. Van Buren." See Extant Silver, #4. 

8. 1841, July 26. JVB (A) to MVB (L) (PSU-ADH) 

"A plated teapot can be got for $12 at one place & $15 at Boyd & 
Rutfords. They are honest men. Why don't you get a silver one? 
That's better." 

9 • 1846, A pril 4. MVB (L) to BFB (LC-VB) 

"I have rec'd by the hands of my Son the beautiful Silver Pitcher 
which you have had the goodness to present to me and for which I beg 
you to accept my sincere thanks. 

My friend Mrs. Butler's advise in regard to its daily use shall be 
faithfully observed, as also that portion of it which relates to my 
final disposition of the Present in the event of the matter referred 
to taking the unfortunate course to which she alludes--substituting 
however Martin the Third for his mother on account of the inscription. 

In giving the first part of her advice Mrs. Butler has, I am sure, 
without being aware of it been in no inconsiderable degree influenced 
by her consciousness of the extent to which a preference for the use- 
ful over the ornamental has through his life prevailed in the breast 
of the generous donor. 

It can scarcely be necessary to speak of the satisfaction it will 
afford me to hand over to my successor this gratifying & permanent 
memorial of the continued respect & esteem of one; of the integrity 
and fidelity of whose friendship I shall carry to my grave a most 
grateful recollection." 

See Extant Silver #1. 



186 






1 . 1 853, December. Description of wed d i ng of Rachel Jackson & 
D r. John M. Lawrenc e (The HermitageT ~ 

"The silver used were the Decatur & Van Buren sets of such historic 
interest. This silver was also used by Mrs. Sarah York Jackson in 
entertaining President Buchanan and Vice President Breckinridge upon 
their visit to the Hermitage." See Ref. 4. 

11- c. 185 8. Will of BFB, Extract, Feb . 23, 1859 in hand of Mrs. 
STVB THSP, Gilpi n Pa pers, Poinsett sect ion) 

"I direct my Executors to lay out at least three hundred dollars in 
the purchase of three pieces of plate, to be presented, in my name, 
to my early patron & friend Martin Van Buren Ex-President of the 
United States, should he be living at the time of my death, and if 
not, then one piece to be presented to each of his three sons or 
their families respectively if they or any of them be dead. Each of 
said pieces to be inscribed with the initials of my name, the date 
of my entering his office (December 3, 1811) and the date of my 
death." See Extant Silver, #2 and 3. 

1 2 . 1858, December 13. BFB Jr. to EO & LA Butler, as quoted in 
F ris b ee, Friends of the Family 

"Father in his will directs that 3 pieces of silver shall be pur- 
chased & presented in his name to Mr. Van Buren & that they shall be 
of not less than $300 in value & in such pieces that Mr. Van Buren 
can leave one to each of his sons. They are now being made, two 
pitchers and one ice bowl and will be very handsome. The shape is 
like that of my tea set." 

13. 1860 , January 18. MVB will (Columbia County Courthouse) 

"Fourthly. .. I give to my grandson Martin son of my son Smith Thompson 
a silver pitcher, presented to me, some years since by my old & 

always sincere friend Benjamin F. Butler Lastly... the three pieces 

of plate last presented to me by my deceased friend Benjamin F. 
Butler, I bequeath to my three sons Abraham, John, & Smith Thompson 
to be equally divided between them." 

14. 1868, June 30. Will of Sarah Jackson (Wills & Inventories 
"Davidson Co., TN, Roll ~Nb~442 Vol 27 479 -80] 

"3rdly I give & bequeath to my daughter Rachel the wife of Dr. John 
M. Lawrence to wit: Two silver dishes and their covers, known as the 
Van Buren Dishes." See Ref. 4. 



187 



15. 1936. MVB Exhibition Catalog (The National Savings Bank, 
Albany) 

"Item 19 Silver bowl, bearing inscription 'Martin Van Buren from 
B.F.B. (Benjamin F. Butler) December 3, 1811December [sic for 
November] 8, 1858.' Loaned by Mrs. L. Gordon Hamersley, Great Great 
Grand Daughter of Martin Van Buren." See Extant Silver, #3. 



Extant Silver 



1. PITCHER, made by Ball, Tompkins, & Black, engraved "MVB-BFB," 
1839-51 (MAVA 120) 

Documentation : This New York -made pitcher is believed to be the one 
presented to Martin Van Buren in 1846 by his "old and always sincere 
friend, Benjamin F. Butler," which was bequeathed to the ex-Presi- 
dent's grandson, Martin Van Buren IV (see Reference 9 and 13 above). 
The pitcher was donated to NPS in 1977 by a descendant of Smith T. 
Van Buren. 

Conclusion : The pitcher was in Van Buren' s possession at the time of 
his death and is appropriate for use in Lindenwald since its "daily 
use" was suggested to MVB by Mrs. Butler. 

2. 2 PITCHERS, repousse, inscribed "Martin Van Buren from BFB, 
December 3, 1811, November 8, 1858," marked "G C Allen," 1858 
(White House 913.2856 and private collection). 

Documentation : One pitcher was given to the White House in 1913 by 
Mrs. Helen Singleton Green of Columbia, South Carolina, who had in- 
herited it from her aunt, Angelica Singleton Van Buren. Silversmith 
G. C. Allen is listed as working on Wall St., NYC, 1844-50. The mate 
to this pitcher is in a private collection. These are two of three 
pieces of plate presented to Martin Van Buren upon the death of 
Benjamin F. Butler and later bequeathed to Van Buren' s sons. See 
References 11-13 above. 

Conclus ion: This pitcher was in Van Buren 's possession at the time 
of his cfeath and would be appropriate for use in Lindenwald. 

3. ICE BOWL, repousse, inscribed: "Martin Van Buren from BFB, 
December 3, 1811, November 8, 1858," 1858 (private collection) 

Documentation : Owned by a descendant of Smith T. Van Buren, this 
bowl matches pitcher #2 and has the same history (Ref. 11-13, 15). 



188 



Conclusion: This piece was in Van Buren's possession at the time of 
his death and would be appropriate for use in Lindenwald. 

4. CUP, chased, inscribed "Presented by Martin Van Buren to his 
godson Andrew Jackson Jr. 4. March 1837.", c. 1837 (Hermitage 
1980-0-164) 

D ocume ntation: Van Buren had served as Andrew Jackson Ill's god- 
father wheriTe was christened at the White House in 1835. The silver 
cup was presented to the boy two years later on the occasion of Van 
Buren's inauguration. See Ref. 7. 

Conclusion: No connection with Lindenwald. 

5. TABLESPOON, fiddle-shaped, inscribed "MVB" monogram; "H 
Jenkins," 1837-23 (private collection) 

D ocumentation : This tablespoon was found by the owner in a Brooklyn, 
NY, dump and there is no documentation to link the spoon with Martin 
Van Buren beyond the date of the piece and the monogram. Jenkins was 
a silversmith in Albany when Van Buren was a state senator residing 
there, so it is possible that this spoon may have belonged to him. 

C onclusion : Further investigation is necessary to determine if this 
spoon matches other Van Buren flatware in private collections. 

6. FLATWARE, number and description unavailable, date undetermined 
(private collection) 

Documentation: This flatware is owned by a descendant of Smith T. 
and Ellen James Van Buren in Florida. 

Conclusion : Further investigation is needed to determine if this 
flatware is associated with Lindenwald. 

7. FLATWARE, number and description unavailable, date undeter- 
mined (private collection) 

Do cum enta tion : These pieces are owned by a descendant of Smith T. 
and Henrietta Irving Van Buren, in England. 

Conc lusion : Further investigation is needed to determine if this 
silver is associated with Lindenwald. 



189 



8. SET OF BEADED FLATWARE, number and description unavailable, 
inscribed "Van Buren"; marked "Platte Brothers" (?), 1820-40 
(private col lection) 

Documentation : This set, probably made in New York, is owned by a 
woman in Buffalo, N.Y., whose husband is supposedly a descendant of 
Martin Van Buren; "family lore" says the silver belonged to the 
President; however, there is no documentation for this. 

Conclusion : Further investigation is needed to determine if this set 
matches other Van Buren pieces and is associated with Lindenwald. 



Silver- -Summary 



The best documented silver associated with Martin Van Buren is the "3 
pieces of plate" made and presented to Van Buren at Benjamin F. 
Butler's death in 1858 (Ref. 11-13, 15). The pitcher in the White 
House collection (#2) descended in the family of Abraham and Angelica 
Van Buren. A second pitcher, presumably left to John Van Buren, is 
owned by his descendents. The ice bowl (#3) descended in the family 
of Smith T. Van Buren, where it remains. 

The silver pitcher in MAVA's collection (#1) is the piece presented 
by Butler "some years since" referred to in Van Buren's 1860 will 
(Ref. 9, 13). 

The tablespoon (#5) made by Albany silversmith H. Jenkins, c. 181723, 
might have belonged to Van Buren, but unless other Van Buren silver 
is found to match this piece, the Van Buren association remains 
speculative. 

Van Buren was in possession of silver knives, forks, and spoons when 
he moved from Albany to Washington in 1829, although he expected to 
purchase additional flatware at that time (Ref. 1-3). This may well 
be the silver in private collections (#5, 6, 7). 

The "8 dozen silver knives, 4 silver dishes with tops, and 4 silver 
wine coolers" purchased from Van Buren by Andrew Jackson in 1831 have 
not survived in the Hermitage collection, although in 1853 the "Van 
Buren silver" was used at the wedding of Rachel Jackson and in 1868, 
two of the "Van Buren dishes" were bequeathed to her (Ref. 4, 10, 
14). 

It is not known if Van Buren purchased silver in England or if the 
plate he sent back from there in 1832 was some he already owned and 
had been using abroad (Ref. 5). 

No plated teapot has survived and there is no mention of other silver 
being purchased specifically for Lindenwald (Ref. 8). 

190 



TEXTILES 
References 

1- 1816, J uly 31. BFB (A) to MVB (NYSL) 

"Enclosed is the bill of W.W. & T.L. Chester for floor covering. The 
money was to be sent on its arrival. As you have now no funds in the 
Mechanicks Bank, will you forward them a check on the Hudson Bank, 
payable to the order of W.W. & T.L. Chester as they have requested." 

2- n .d. M V B to Peter Hoes (K) (LC-VB #34) 

List of articles: "Broom, Meat, Plates, Chambers, Buttons, Silk, 
Baize" 

3 - 1829, April 18. JVB (A) to MVB (W) (PSU-ADH) 

Highest bid on "Window curtains--$25 a window Since the sale Mr. 
Croswell has taken one pair for $80... all the 1 inen. . .reserved without 
offering. " 

4 - 1829, July 13. MVB (W) to JAH (NY) (NY PL-Pres. papers) 

"In the meantime I send you the enclosed to enable Mrs. Hamilton & 
Madame Huygens to look at the carpets & curtains at their leisure & 
without putting themselves to inconvenience. . .12 (chairs) for the 
drawing room. . .cushions to be made here & to correspond with the 
curtains... I think the carpets & curtains in the drawing room should 
be alike." 

1829, August 15. Ibid. 

"The ladies will remember that I am to cut an additional single win- 
dow in the receiving room." 

5 - 1829, September 8. MVB (W ) to JAH (NY) (NY PL-Pres. Papers) 

"round table in sitting room with leaves which will also serve as a 
Breakfast table. I wish the Ladies would get a handsome covering for 
it." 



191 



6. 1 833, September 14. A. Vail (London) to MVB (K?) (LC-VB) 

"Some delay in preparing the objects to be sent to the Dept. of State 
has prevented my sending your chintz by the Packet of the 1st as I 
intended doing--and enabled me to execute your orders for the lining, 
according to your letter of the 13th August, since received. The 
whole goes in a box for the Dept. by the ship Philadelphia. . .the 
parcel is addressed to you, care of Mrs. McLane--I have executed your 
orders to the best of my judgement. .. .The enclosed are samples-- 
the pink lining for the white chintz which is intended for the Draw- 
ing room, the yellow for the other which is for the two lower and the 
Bed room-- 1 was advised to have all the latter of the same kind, as 
something may be saved by cutting the curtains one with another. 
[If] I am not so lucky as to have met your views, you will, I hope 
recollect that your instructions were yery laconic & left nearly all 
to my discretion. ..." 

7. i837, Ju ne 2. "Furniture of the President's House" (MAVA 
#2487 

"1837 June 2 To labelling carpet and shipping from the President's 
House to New York packet $2.00" 

8. 18 39, July 30. STVB (A) to Angelica (Europe) (MAVA #714) 

"three little tables of different heights placed under as many table 
cloths " [in the dining room when Van Buren bought the house.] 

9. 1840, November 4. Angelica (W) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB ; 
D LC-986TT 

"working hard cutting out all the house linen for Lindenwald." 

1 . 1840, November 11. Angelica (W) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB; 
DLX-9862) 

"I am busy making up the house linen which I purchased in New York. 
It is all cut out already & I have Maria employed upon it." 

11. 1 841, June 5. H. Butler (NY) to MVB (K) 

"I purchased for you 1 pr. large size Blankets at $9, 3 prs at $7, 
2 prs servant's blankets $4.50. I also ventured to get for you three 
spreads for servant's beds thinking you would probably require of 
them. I hope they will get to you safely & meet your approval. I 
got my mattings of a man (who bought out all Cary & Lee had) for 27 
cents pr. yd. You see I was more fortunate than yourself and feel 
a little like triumphing over you." 



192 






1 2 • 1841, July 26. JVB (A) t o MVB (L) (PSU-AD H) 
"I believe the table cloths also at $4.50 a piece." 

1841 , July 30. IbJ.djL 

"The table cloths were sent by the 'Rockland' yesterday." 

I 3 - 1843, October 14 . A ngelica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB) 

"We were in the midst of putting down carpets & up stoves " 

1843, November 25. Ibid . 

"Mrs. Cambrel eng has given me the pattern of a new kind of patchwork 
which she calls 'blockwork.' She was covering a large arm chair 
with it & I am about to attempt a similar one " 

14. 1844, A pril 1 -184 5, April 1. "Expenses & Disbursements" 
MVB (L C-VBT 

"carpets & curtains--154. 73" 

15. 1 845, January 4. MVB (L) to JKP (MORR) 

"If those articles are as good manure as muslin curtains " 

1 6 . 1845, Jun e 7. Angelica (L) to mother (SC) (LC-ASVB; DLC-9893) 

"There is still a good deal to do in the way of getting the house 
straight again... 2 doz. napkins, 1 doz. chamber towels, pantry & 
kitchen are already marked & put in use." 

17. 1845, Nove mber 23. MVB (L) to Major AVB (NY) (MAVA #700) 
List of primarily kitchen articles includes "mats." 

1 8 . 1848, November 27. MVB (L) to Angelica (NY) (MAVA #702) 

"Buy a pair of the Table covers at Steuarts at 18/6 I meant silks of 
course. If you find those that suit you get half a dozen pair." 

1 9 . 1 858. Account of STVB with M.H. Reid (LC-VB) 

4k yards of Linen wide 3/yard 4^ do narrow 2/3 yard 295 
16 yards green cord 2 yard 4' tassel Is 1/each .72 

6 Labor making Shades 4/ Labor Hanging 6/ 13 



193 



2 . 1862. D.T. Ly nch, An Epoch and a Man (1929), p. 544 

MVB bedroom: "...easy chair covered with chintz. . .valanced windows 
...small rugs, woven of vari-colored rags " 

21. c. 1917. Photograph, deProsse Coll. (MAVA neq. 5110) 

Fig. 6, room 105, showing Brussels carpet (MAVA 21). 

22. 193 6_. Invent ory of MVB Furniture, Weiq, "Lindenwald," 

Appendix IV 

"7 — Green Brussels carpet (22' x 20') 
13 -- Large hall Brussels carpet 

21 — 4 pair of original drapes 

22 — Red Brussels carpet (22' x 20') 
35 — Brussels carpet (22' x 20')" 

23. 1930s. Photographs, Rowles Studio Coll. (MAVA neg. 5120) 

Figs. 8, 12, 16 showing rooms 105, 106, 111 with carpeting and cur- 
tains. 

24. 1 930s. Photographs, deProsse Coll. (MAVA neg. 5110) 

Figs. 3-5 (room 104, carpet), 9 (room 105, carpet), 10, 13, 14 (room 
106, carpet). 

25. 19 36. Phot ogr aph, Weig Coll. (MAVA neg. 5160) 
Fig. 15 (room 106, carpet). 



Extant Textiles 



1. BRUSSELS CARPET, multicolored geometric/stripe with border, 
1840-60 (MAVA 21) 

Documentation: Wall-to-wall carpet was found in place in room 105 
(hall) of Lindenwald and was stated by deProsse/Akers family to have 
been in the house during Van Buren's occupancy. Carpet appears in 
c. 1917 and later photographs (Figs. 6-9). Purchased by NPF from 
Ken Campbell for NPS in 1975. 

Conclusion : This carpet is of the proper period to have been used by 
Van Buren. It should be reproduced for use in Lindenwald, room 105, 
so that the original can be preserved. 



194 






2. BRUSSELS CARPET FRAGMENTS (3), red/orange/green/white geo- 
metric pattern, 1840-60 (MAVA 351-353) 

D ocumentation : These fragments were found rolled in room 120 (back 
hall) at Lindenwald in 1977. A patch of this pattern was also found 
on #1 above (MAVA 21). 

Conclusion : These fragments have not been identified with a partic- 
ular room but are of the correct period to have been used by Van 
Buren at Lindenwald and could serve as a pattern source for repro- 
duction. 

3. BRUSSELS CARPET FRAGMENT, multicolored geometric/ rosette pat- 
tern, 1840-60 (MAVA 836) 

Documentation : Found in Lindenwald in 1981. 

Conclusion : This fragment has not been identified with a particular 
room but is of the correct period for Lindenwald and could be a pat- 
tern source for reproduction. 

4. BRUSSELS CARPET FRAGMENTS (2), red/orange/white geometric pat- 
tern, no #, 1840-60 

Documentation : These fragments were found attached to the pedals of 
the melodeon (MAVA 348), a Van Buren-associated piece. 

Conclusion : It is not known if these carpet fragments &re original 
to the melodeon or added at a later time, but they appear to be of 
the correct period. This carpet pattern could be reproduced if 
needed for Lindenwald. 

5. CUT PILE CARPET FRAGMENT, blue/black/grey geometric pattern, 
1885-1905 (MAVA 354) 

Documentation : This carpet strip was found on the floor of room 120 
(back hall) and was taken up in 1977. 

Conclusion : Since this carpet post-dates the Van Buren period, it is 
not appropriate for reproduction for Lindenwald. 

6. FLOOR CLOTH FRAGMENT, red/brown geometric/quatrefoil pattern, 
1840-60 (MAVA 637) 

Documentation : Found behind fireplace in room 112 in 1981. 

Conclusion : This floor cloth dates to the Van Buren period at 
Lindenwald and could be reproduced, if needed. 



195 



7. FLOOR CLOTH FRAGMENT, multicolored geometric pattern, 1840-70 
(MAVA Ace. 175) 

Documentation : Found at Lindenwald in 1981, this fragment is similar 
in pattern to a floor cloth fragment found at The Hermitage (1980-0- 
460). 

Conclusion : This kind of floor cloth was used during the Van Buren 
period and slightly later. It could be reproduced for Lindenwald, 
if needed. 

8. STRAW MATTING FRAGMENT, striped, 19th century (?) (MAVA 556) 

Documentation : Found at Lindenwald in 1980. 

Conclusion : If this matting can be dated to the Van Buren period, 
it could be reproduced, if needed, for Lindenwald. 

9. STRAW MATTING FRAGMENTS (2), red checked, 19th century (?) 
(MAVA 884-5) 

Documentation : Found in the attic at Lindenwald in 1982. 

Conclusio n: If this matting can be dated to the Van Buren period, it 
could be reproduced, if needed, for Lindenwald. 

10. STRAW MATTING FRAGMENTS, variegated, 19th century (?) (MAVA 
Ace. 307) 

Documentation : Found in Lindenwald collection. 

Conclusio n: If this matting can be dated to the Van Buren period, 
it could be reproduced, if needed, for Lindenwald. 

11. RUSH MAT FRAGMENTS, criss-cross, 19th century (?) (MAVA Ace. 
308) 

Documentation : Found in Lindenwald collection. 

C onclusion : If this matting can be dated to the Van Buren period, 
it could be reproduced, if needed, for Lindenwald. 

12. CORNICE BOARDS, covered with shirred multicolored floral 
fabric, 19th century (?) (MAVA 16-19) 

Documentation : Purchased by HPHA for NPS in 1975, these boards 
("valances") appear in 1930 photos of room 106 (Figs. 12, 14) and 
were stated to have been in the house when Dr. Birney purchased it in 
1917. 



196 



Concl usion : These cornice boards were used at Lindenwald with cur- 
tains that are no longer extant. They probably post-date the Van 
Buren period and their use is not anticipated. 

13. CORNICE BOARDS (4), covered with green/white floral fabric, 
19th century (?) (MAVA Ace. 175) 

Documentation : These boards were found at Lindenwald in 1977 and 
may have been used in room 104. 

Con clusion : These cornice boards probably post-date the Van Buren 
period and their use is not anticipated. 

14. CORNICE BOARDS (3), covered with maroon fabric, 19th century 
(?) (MAVA Ace. 175) 

Documentation: These boards were found in Lindenwald in 1981 and 
have not been identified with a particular room. 

Conclusion : These pieces probably post-date the Van Buren period and 
their use is not anticipated. 

15. Wool fibers found under a tack in the floor of room 101 do 
not appear to come from carpet fragments 2, 3, and 5, according to 
a report, May 12, 1984, from Ed McManus, conservator at NARO, to 
Chief, NAHPC (copy with routing slip to Carol E. Kohan, Curator, 
May 15, 1984, MAVA file). 



Textiles — Summary 



There are numerous references to textiles including floor coverings, 
curtains, linens, tablecloths and furniture covers, but the only 
textiles to survive at Lindenwald from the Van Buren period are ex- 
amples of floor coverings: Brussels carpets, painted floor cloths, 
and straw matting (#1-4, 6-7, 8-9). 

Floor coverings were of concern to Van Buren when he furnished his 
Albany residence in 1816. W.W. & T.L. Chester, the New York dealers 
from whom Van Buren purchased floor coverings in 1816, also supplied 
Saxony, Brussels, and Wilton carpets for Van Buren at the President's 
House in 1837. A carpet was shipped from the President's House to 
New York in 1837; however, there is no description of the carpet, nor 
any indication of its final destination. 



197 



Correspondence of Angelica Van Buren indicates that the Lindenwald 
household followed the period practice of "putting down carpets" in 
the fall. References and physical evidence indicate that straw mat- 
ting was used at Lindenwald during the Van Buren period, possibly 
under the carpets. 

Expenditures were made for curtains as well as carpets for Lindenwald 
in 1844-45, but no period examples have survived. 

Chamber towels, napkins, blankets, and spreads are also specifically 
mentioned as being at Lindenwald; none have survived. 



COMMUNICATION DEVICES 
References 



1. 1 803. MVB, Autobiog ra phy (1854), p. 17. 

"As I approached the porch of the house built by Judge Van Ness, I 
perceived that the lower half of the old-fashioned front door which 
was divided through the middle (a style greatly favored by our Dutch 

ancestors) was closed, and the upper open I seized the knocker 

which was hanging near his head, and gave it a somewhat emphasized 

rap The Judge died in the succeeding month of December [1804].... 

In the many alterations and improvements I have made in the house I 
have preserved the old double-door, and its knocker, as interesting 
memorials of my last interview with its original owner." 

2. 1 846. S.M. Maury, Statesmen in America in 1846, p. 67 

"On ringing the bell, a gentleman stepped from the parlor; and... 
advanced himself to receive us. From the resemblance to his pic- 
tures, I immediately recognized the ex-President." 

3* 1 936. Inventory of MVB Furniture, Weig, "Lindenwald," 
Ap pendix IV . 

#15- "original silver door knocker 1797" 
#41- "old Tower bell" 

4. 1 938, February 12 . C.B. deProsse to Dr. James Leath (MAVA 
fi lesT 

"Front door has old, chased bronze, silver plated knocker of 1797 wgt 
iron angle hinge, heavy iron rim lock, bronze key, wght iron latch 

for lower part of Dutch Door The large bronze bell in tower is 

still being used to call the farm hands to meals, it has a sound 
that carries one back to the former days." 



198 



Extant Communication Devices 



1. DOOR KNOCKER (MAVA 729), cast copper alloy, with engraved 
silver plate, inscribed "1797" and "Van Ness" under the plate. 

Do cumentation : Found in situ on Dutch door (east entrance) of 
Lindenwald. 

C onclusion : The inscriptions, style, and location of the door 
knocker indicate it is the original door knocker installed by Judge 
Van Ness and retained by Martin Van Buren, as stated in the latter's 
autobiography. The door knocker has been restored and is appropri- 
ately placed on the upper portion of the double door. 

2. CALL BELL AND PIVOT, brass, 1830-50 (MAVA 1167) 

D ocumentati on: Call bell and pivot were found in situ on the north 
waTT of room 304, in the servants' quarters. See HSR, "Communica- 
tions," for description of mechanical bell system at Lindenwald. 

Conclusion : This call bell is original to Lindenwald. Though it may 
pre-date the Van Buren period, it was undoubtedly used throughout the 
period of Van Buren's occupancy. This fixture should be retained in 
situ and the other elements of the system should be reproduced as 
appropriate following HSR recommendations. 

3. BELL AND YOKE (MAVA 25), date undetermined, yoke inscribed 
"CA(H)ILL" 

D ocumentati on: The large bell, found in situ in Lindenwald' s tower, 
was donated to NPF in 1976 by Ken Campbell who stated it was "assoc- 
iated with Lindenwald and the period of its occupancy by President 
Van Buren. " 

Conclusion : Although the bell was included in the 1936 inventory of 
Van Buren furnishings, NPS architects believe it dates from after the 
Van Buren period. It was removed from the tower by the NAHPC restor- 
ation crew in 1985 and will be retained in MAVA's study collection. 



Communication Devices- -Summary 

Physical and documentary evidence indicate a mechanical bell system 
was used at Lindenwald during the historic period, and also that the 
original 1797 Van Ness door knocker was purposely retained by Martin 
Van Buren. 



199 



Although twentieth century sources associate the tower bell with Van 
Buren, there is no period evidence to confirm this and the physical 
evidence suggests that it is later. 



HEATING DEVICES 
References 

1. 1843, June 20 & 22. ASVB (L) to Mrs. R.S. (LC-ASVB) 

"We have had a fire in the sitting room nearly every day & occasion- 
ally even in my bedroom." 

2. 184?, June. ASVB to ? (LC-ASVB) 

"I did not have the grate taken down in my room till Sat'y & was 
doubtful then as we had had fire the day before." 

3. 1843, October 9 & 14. ASVB (L) to Mrs. R.S. (LC-ASVB) 
"We were in the midst of putting down carpets & up stoves " 

4. 1845, November 23. Note on back of MVB (L) to Major AVB (NY) 
T MAVA 700) 

This list of household items bought or to be bought, possibly for 
Lindenwald, includes a "fire iron nursery," "bedroom ditto," "coal 
scuttle," and "firecarrier." See General Furnishings, Ref. 21. 

5. 1936. Weig, "Lindenwald," Appendix IV 

"38--Van Buren' s copper hot water boiler 

(name painted on side) 
39— original Boynton furnace... 
40— original stove and dutch oven..." 

6. 19 38, February 12. C.B.deProsse to Dr. James Leath (HFR 
Ap pendix D 

"The pot furnace still in place and in good condition, is a Boyington 
[Boynton] furnace of 1854. 

Basement kitchen has an interesting cast iron (Gothic style) range 
and baker's oven, built into fireplace opening. 

A heavy 60 gal. copper boiler with Van Buren's name... at property." 



200 



7. 1938, February. V.A. deProsse drawing Basement Plan-- 
Lindenwald 

"Furnace Room--M.A. Boyington [Boynton] Furnace NY Aug 22, 1854" 

8. c. 1974. Photograph by Fred Van Tassell (MAVA) Fig. 18 
View of room 006 showing cast iron stove in situ . 

9. c. 1974. Photographs by Fred Van Tassell (MAVA) Fig. 23 & 24 
Views of room 001 showing furnace. 

Extant Heating Devices 

1. HOT-AIR FURNACE, c. 1854. Markings: "N.A. BOYNTON'S PATENT/ 
NEW YORK/Aug 22, 1854" on cast iron firebox door; "Hon. Martin 
Van Buren/Kinderhook, N.Y." on sheet metal access door. 

Documentation : Found in situ in room 001 of Lindenwald. See HSR, 
"Room 001" and "Heating System." 

Conclusion : This is the original Lindenwald furnace dating to MVB's 
occupancy. It will remain in place. 

2. HOT-AIR REGISTERS (8), c. 1848- 

1854. Three are rectangular with scroll pattern grill and 
marked "Culver's Patent;" four are circular, 10" diameter; 
one is circular, 14" diameter, marked "Patented March 16, 
1852 & Jan 3rd, 1854." 

Documentation : The three rectangular registers were found in situ in 
rooms 105, 119, and 206. The four smaller circular registers were 
found in situ in rooms 101, 104, 201, and 205; the larger circular 
one was found in situ in room 105. See HSR, "Heating System" and 
individual room descriptions. 

Conclusion : These registers are part of Lindenwald's original heat- 
ing system and will be retained in their original locations. 

3. COOK STOVE (COOKING RANGE) AND OVENS, cast-iron, c. 1850-62. 
Marking on oval plate: "M. Pond's Union Range/Manufactured 
by Moses Pond & C./No. 28 Merchants Row, Boston" 

Documentation : Found in situ in fireplace opening in room 006. See 
HSR, "Room 006" and "Heating System." 

Conclusion : This cook stove is original to Lindenwald and dates to 
the historic period. 



201 



4. CIRCULAR BRICK BAKE OVEN, c. 1850. 

Documentation : Found in situ in northwest corner of room 006. See 
HSR, "Room 006" and "Heating System." 

Conclusion : This oven is original to Lindenwald and dates to the 
historic period. 

5. FIREPLACE INSERT, cast-iron, c. 1850 (MAVA 43) 

Documentation : Purchased as part of the Van Buren furnishings from 
Ken Campbell by NPF for NPS in 1975. 

Conclusion : The insert was not found in situ but may fit the fire- 
place opening in room 114, bathroom. 

6. FIREPLACE FENDERS (5), metal, date undetermined (MAVA 63-67). 
Markings: "WH Jackson Co. N.Y. No. 102" on #64; "Conover & 
Wooley No. 32" on #65. 

D ocumentation : Same as #5, above. 

Conclusion : None of the fenders was found in situ . If they are of 
the proper date, they may be appropriate for Lindenwald. 

7. COAL SCUTTLE, metal, date undetermined (MAVA 1164) 

Documentation : Found in the basement of Lindenwald c. 1985. A coal 
scuttle appears on the November, 1845, list of kitchen and miscellan- 
eous items (Ref. 4). 

Conclusion : If the scuttle dates to the Van Buren period, it would 
be appropriate for use in a basement room. 

He ating Devices- -Summary 

There is an 1840 reference to putting up stoves, but they would not 
have been needed after the installation of the heating system c. 1854. 
Physical and documentary evidence indicate that the Boynton furnace 
(#1) in the basement dates to the Van Buren period and the registers 
(#2) are also part of the original heating system. The copper boiler 
referred to in Ref. 6 has disappeared since 1938. 

The cast-iron range (#3) and brick bake oven (#4) are also original 
to Lindenwald, dating to c. 1850. 



202 



The fireplace insert (#5), fenders (#6), and coal scuttle (#7), all 
with Lindenwald provenance, may date to the Van Buren period as well. 
The "firecarrier" and "fire irons" have not survived. 

The fireboards with their varying wallpaper designs and borders are 
treated in the following section. 



FIREBOARDS 
R eferences 

1 • 1841, May 17. H. Butler (NY) to MVB, Winterthur— Downs Coll. 

"We looked at a large number of fire [fine?] papers & they will be 
sent up for you to make your selections—The borderings for the fire- 
boards you will take like the bordering in the rooms for which they 
are intended." 

2. c. 1930s. Photograph (Fig. 4) 

View of room 104, showing fireboard in situ . 

3. 1 936. Weig, "Lindenwald," Appendix IV 
"42 — miscellaneous. . .fireboards" 

Extant Fireboards 



Eight fireboards were found in the attic of Lindenwald in 1977. They 
fit the fireplace openings in rooms 101, 104, 106, 109, 201, 205, 
209, and 210 and are covered with mid-19th century wallpaper. There 
is no reason to doubt that these are the fireboards referred to in 
Harriet Butler's 1841 letter (Ref. 1). 

1. FIREBOARD (MAVA 88) from room 101. Width 5'-l", height 3'- 
3. 1/2". 

This fireboard is covered with a centrally placed scenic panel, with 
filler panels on its sides. The edges are trimmed with a flocked 
border. The scenic panel measures 3'-6" x 2'-7". The scene depicted 
on the panel is partially covered over by later wallpapers, but 
appears to consist of a lake with hills in the background. A large 
evergreen dominates the right side of this panel. The panel is 
titled Vue d'Ecosse. The principal colors in the scenic panel are 
blue, gray, and green. 



203 



The fireboard in room 101 is the widest of the fireboards on which 
the scenic panels were used and filler panels had to be placed along 
its sides to fill the gaps between its edge and the border. The 
filler panels are 5 1/2" wide and dark gray in color. 

The border that trims the edges of the fireboard is 4 1/2" wide. It 
has a blue and green floral and foliate pattern. The leaves of the 
border are flocked. 

2. FIREBOARD (MAVA 85) from room 104. Width 3'-6 1/4", height 
2'-9 1/2". 

This fireboard is covered with a center scenic panel and border. It 
has not been covered over with later wallpapers. The scenic panel 
measures 2'-10" x 2'-l 1/2" and consists of a lion and tiger sur- 
rounded by a Rococo floral motif. The principal colors in the scenic 
panel are gray, brown, red and green. The border that trims this 
fireboard is 4" wide and has a green and gray acanthus-leaf pattern. 

3. FIREBOARD (MAVA 84) from room 106. Width 3'-10", height 2'- 
10 1/2". 

The historic paper coverings on this fireboard consist of a center 
scenic panel and border. They have been covered over by three later 
borders and one later wallpaper. Although the second border on this 
fireboard matches the fireboard border in room 104 and indicates that 
it was undoubtedly applied during the Van Buren period, the original 
border, which also dates to Van Buren, will be restored since it is 
the same border as will be used with the wallpaper in this room. 
Only a small portion of the historic paper coverings on this fireboard 
are exposed. The center scenic panel measures 3'-5 1/2" by 2'-6" and 
"Mort du Cerf" depicts a huntsman with his horse and dog. The domi- 
nant colors in the scenic panel are blue, green, gray and brown. The 
border is 2 1/4" wide, with a stylized brown geometric pattern. The 
border is flocked. 

4. FIREBOARD (MAVA 87) from room 109. Width 4'-9 1/2", height 
3'-2 1/2". 

All that remains of the fireboard from room 109 is the wood frame 
and small fragments of a scenic panel and the border. The canvas on 
this fireboard has been destroyed. The border is the same stylized 
geometric patterned border as on the fireboard in room 106. 



204 



5. FIREBOARD (MAVA 91) from room 201. Width 4'-l 3/4", height 
3'-3". 

The historic covering on this fireboard is the room's historic wall- 
paper, trimmed with a flocked floral border. The historic papers 
have been covered over with two layers of later wallpaper. The his- 
toric wallpaper has a gray and white background, with small pink and 
yellow flowers. The border is 6 1/2" wide, with a flocked green and 
gray floral pattern. 

6. FIREBOARD (MAVA 90) from room 205. Width 4'-ll", height 3'- 
5". 

This fireboard was originally covered with a scenic panel, surrounded 
by a flocked foliate and floral border. The original paper coverings 
on this fireboard have been covered over by a later wallpaper. Only 
small areas of the original covernings on this fireboard have been 
exposed so that neither the exact size nor the scene depicted on the 
center panel is known. The border is 4 1/2" wide and is the same 
border as on the fireboard from room 101. 

7. FIREBOARD (MAVA 86) from room 209. Width 5 '-7 1/2", height 
3'-7". 

This fireboard retains its original paper coverings. They have not 
been covered over by later wallpapers. The wallpaper used to cover 
this fireboard is the green and white wallpaper used elsewhere in the 
house as a lining paper. The border is 4 1/2" wide with a green and 
gray Greek key pattern. 

8. FIREBOARD (MAVA 89) from room 210. Width 3 '-11 1/2", height 
3'-l/2". 

This fireboard retains its original paper coverings, a green and 
white floral wallpaper, surrounded by a flocked green geometric bor- 
der. These papers have not been covered over by a later wallpaper. 



205 



HOUSEKEEPING ACCESSORIES 
References 



1. 1845, November 23. Not e sc ribbled on bac k of MVB (L) to Majoi 
AVB TN'Y) TMAVA 70"0T 



"18 


Table 




24 


do 




18 


Gridiron 




12 


Fire iron Nursery 




36 


Bedroom do 




4 


Oyster gridiron 




22 


Dutch ovens 




9 


Potato steamer 




6-6 


Toaster 




19 


Tea kettle 




28 


Fish kettle 




28 


Ham do 




9 


Soup do 




9 


Coal scuttle 




2 


Bed screw 




10 


4 stewpans 




6 


trivet 




14 


2 sets smoothing iron 




2-6 


do stand 




6-6 


Frying pans 




5-6 


Firecarrier 




8 


axe 




6-6 


Hatchet 
Meat saw 




4 


sugar nippers 


312 - 6 


16-6 


mats 


27-6 


7 


steel yards 8 


340~ 

42-6 
42 sh 6d" 


2. 


184?, June. ASVB to ? 


(LC-ASVB) 



"We found a magnificent cake in the closet which Thomas says somebody 
sent about Christmas to the Ex as a wedding present- -Sans ceremonie 
we have appropriated it & just as it has been standing for the last 
five months enclosed in cotton in its box we have dispatched it to 
the Bride. The icing is moulded into birds cornucopias of fruit & 
flowers etc. It will be a nine(?) days wonder I am sure with our 
simple villagers--please fortune that it may not prove mouldy or 
worse. " 



206 



3. 193 6 r August 3. Photograph by M. Weig (MAVA files) HSR, p. 59 
THP29) 

View of exterior of Lindenwald showing clothes-drying rack on grounds 
Ex tant Housekeeping Accessories 



1. PLATE WARMER, tinned iron with painted decoration, 1840-50 
(MAVA 271) 

Documentation : Purchased by NPS in 1979 from Mrs. C.B. deProsse who 
stated: "The little wanning oven and fireplace grills were also 
named (by Mr. Wagoner) as part of the Van Buren possessions." 

Conclusion : The plate warmer is of the correct period for Lindenwald, 

2. GRIDIRON, 1840-60 (MAVA 272) 

Documentation : Same as #1, above. A gridiron is included on the 
1845 list of supplies (Ref. 1). 

C onclusion : The gridiron is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

3. OYSTER GRIDIRON, 1840-60 (MAVA 273) 

Documentation : Same as #1. An oyster gridiron is included on the 
1845 list (Ref. 1). 

C onclusion : The oyster gridiron is of the correct period for Linden- 
wald. 

4. CAKE BOX, tin with painted decoration, 1840-60? (MAVA 409) 

Documentation : Found in the basement of Lindenwald, room 006, in 
1981. 

C onclusion : The cake box would be appropriate for use. 

5. WASH BOILERS (2), copper, with lids missing, 1840-60? 
(MAVA 1162, 1163) 

Documentation : Found in the basement of Lindenwald in 1983. 

Conclusion : The wash boilers are of the correct period for Linden- 
wald. 



207 



6. DRYING RACK, wooden, c. 1850 (MAVA 133) 

D ocumentation : Donated to NPS in 1977 by Ken Campbell. The rack 
appears in a 1936 photograph of the exterior of Lindenwald. 

Conclusion : The drying rack is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

7. DRYING RACK, wooden, 1820-50 (MAVA 1166) 
Documentation : Found in room 007 in 1984. 

Conclusion : Drying rack is of the correct period for Lindenwald. 

Housekeeping Accessories—Summary 

A great many household accessories used in food preparation, house- 
keeping, and laundry, etc. were undoubtedly in use at Lindenwald 
1841-62; however, there are few references to such utilitarian ob- 
jects during the Van Buren period and only eight objects in this 
category have been identified as having a Lindenwald association. 

Although there is no particular reference to a plate warmer (#1) at 
Lindenwald, such an object is yery typical of the period, and this 
one has a Lindenwald provenance. 

The gridiron and oyster gridiron (#2 and 3) may be the ones listed in 
1845 and the cake box (#4) may be similar to the one referred to by 
Angel ica Van Buren. 

The wash boilers (#5) and drying racks (#6 and 7) are furnishings 
essential to the functioning of a 19th century laundry or "wash" room. 

PLUMBING FIXTURES 

References 

1. 1 846, November 6. MVB (L) to G. Worth (NY) (LC-VB), quoted 
in Piatt, HRS, p. 70 

"When you visit me again you shall wash off the impurities of Mammon 
in the Bath which has been put up in part with the interest you have 
(been) so kind as to collect for me " 



208 



2. 1849, November 2 2. STVB (L) to RU (NY) (RU Papers, NYPL, 
quoted i n Platt^ HRS, pp. 87-88) " 

"[McGuire] promised me to cut holes thro' the walls for the plumbers, 

6 yet they tell me he declined it as no part of his business, & left 
them to cut for themselves, at the risk of breaking into the flues, 

the location of which no one but himself understood I find also 

on digging around the cess-pool to insert pipes, that the walls of it 
are round paving stones , of single thickness, depending upon sand 
walls outside to hold them up. The plumber thinks it will fall down 
as soon as water gets to it--if not before, & crush the lead pipe 
which empties into it. It is moreover covered with plank , & in no 
long time would have let a horse or ox into it at the top if it fails 
to tumble in from the sides " 

3. 1850, January 7. (RU Plan Book, quoted in Piatt, HRS, p. 114) 

"January, 1850 

7 Martin Van Bu ren 

Plan for Bath Case to 1 in scale and Detail full size" 

4 - 1936. Weig, "Lindenwald, " Appendix IV 
"37— Van Buren's bathtub" 

5. 19 38, February 12. C.B. deProsse to Dr. James Leath 

"A heavy 60 gal. copper boiler with Van Buren's name, also his metal - 
lined wooded bath tub, are at the property. 

The old extra heavy lead soil line and traps, (also other lines) are 
still in place at location of his bath room, a masterpiece of plumbing 
work. The metal lined supply tank over Van Buren's private toilet is 
still in place." 

6. c. 1977. Photograph by Fred Van Tassel (MAVA Neg. 8232) 
Fig. 17 

Bathtub (MAVA 82) 
Extant Plumbing Fixtures 

1. BATHTUB, copper-lined, wooden-cased, c. 1850 (MAVA 82) 

D ocumentation : Found on the Lindenwald grounds in 1976, this is 
believed to be Martin Van Buren's bathtub, as mentioned in the Upjohn 
Plan Book in 1850 (Ref. 3). See HSR, "Rooms 114/115/116" and "Plumb- 
ing." 



209 



Conclusion : This bathtub will be partially restored and returned to 
its original location in the northwest corner of room 114. 

2. WATER CLOSET, with lead-lined, wooden-cased storage tank and 
blue and white ceramic toilet bowl, c. 1850. The toilet is 
marked "Wedgwood," "Pearl," and "1385." 

Documentation : Found in situ in room 115, the water closet dates to 
the Upjohn addition. See HSR, "Rooms 114/115/116" and "Plumbing." 

Conclusion : The original water closet will be restored and remain in 
room 115. 

3. SINK, lead-lined, wooden-cased, c. 1850 (MAVA ace. 350) 

Documentation : Found in laundry room 007 in deteriorated condition, 
the sink originally stood along the south wall in that room. See 
HSR, "Room 007" and "Plumbing." 

Conclusion : The sink will be restored and returned to its original 
location in room 007. 

4. HAND PUMP, cast-iron, c. 1850 (MAVA 1165); marked "Downes Co. 
No. 2, Seneca Falls, N.Y." 

Documentation : Found attached to a lead pipe and wooden board in the 
south wall of room 007, the pump was used with the laundry room sink. 
See HSR, "Room 007" and "Plumbing." 

Conclusion : The pump should be returned to its original location in 
room 0~07. 

5. HAND PUMP, cast-iron, mounted on wood, c. 1862 (MAVA 650); 
marked "W. & B. Douglas, Middletown, Connecticut No. 3 
Patent July 1, 1862." 

Documentation : Found in room 007, this pump was probably connected 
to the lead pipe in the southwest corner off room 006 to supply water 
to the original kitchen sink, no longer extant. See HSR, "Room 006" 
and "Plumbing." The HSR states that, although the patent date of 
this pump makes it unlikely that it was used before Van Buren's 
death, a similar pump would have been used with the original sink. 

Cone! usion : The pump should be returned to its original location in 
room 006. 



210 



Plumbing Fixtures—Summary 

It is not known where the "Bath" Van Buren mentioned to Gorham Worth 
in 1846 was located; however, the extant bathtub (#1) appears to be 
the one referred to in the 1850 Upjohn Plan Book. It may be that 
Upjohn simply designed the casing for the bath Van Buren had "set up" 
four years earlier. 

The water closet (#2) with its Wedgwood toilet bowl is part of the 
1850 Upjohn addition, as is the sink in room 007. The original 
kitchen sink in room 006 and bathroom sink in room 114 are not ex- 
tant, but there is physical evidence for their location. The laundry 
room sink and hand pump are extant, and the pump for the kitchen sink. 



PORCH AND GARDEN FURNITURE 
References 



1. 1849-52. Sketch of Lindenwald by R. Upjohn (Columbia 
University) 

This sketch (possibly conjectural) of Lindenwald 's exterior and 
grounds shows two rustic garden settees and a sundial on a pedestal. 

2. 1890s-1930s. Photographs in MAVA files, Fig. 25, 26, 27 

These photographs of Lindenwald 's exterior and grounds show two cast 
iron settees and a white marble urn on the front lawn and two rustic 
chairs on the front porch. 

3. 1978-80. Photographs in MAVA files 

Photographs of Lindenwald's exterior and grounds showing stone urn on 
front lawn. 

4. 1981, May 5. Interview of C.B. deProsse by Carol Kohan and 
Sarah Olson 

"The two 'ironwood' chairs on the front porch were made of wood but 
were hard as iron--stood on either side of the door." 



211 



Extant Porch and Garden Furniture 



1. WHITE MARBLE URN ON BLOCK BASE, c. 1850 (MAVA 1168) 

Documentation : According to C.B. deProsse, Mr. Wagoner claimed the 
urn was part of the Van Buren possessions (figs. 25, 26). It appears 
in the earliest photographs of Lindenwald (1890s). The urn was 
donated to NPS by the Friends of Lindenwald, courtesy of an anonymous 
donor who had purchased it from Ken Campbell c. 1980. 

Conclusion : The urn dates from the Van Buren period at Lindenwald 
and should be returned, if possible, to its original location on the 
front lawn following conservation treatment. 

2. STONE URN ON STEPPED BASE, c. 1860-70 (private collection) 

Documentation : This urn appears in the later photographs of Linden- 
wald and was purchased from Ken Campbell along with cat. no. 1168. 

Conclusion : Further study is needed to determine if this urn is 
appropriate for Lindenwald. 



Porch and Garden Furniture — Summary 

The marble urn (#1) is pictured in the 1890s photographs of Linden- 
wald and is believed to date to the Van Buren period. The stone urn 
(#2) may date from the end of the Van Buren period; however, its 
absence in the 1890s photographs makes its historic presence at 
Lindenwald uncertain. 

The two cast iron garden benches with gothic ornamentation and the 
two "ironwood chairs" shown in the early photographs have not 
survived, but are believed to date from the Van Buren period and 
should be reproduced and placed on the front lawn and on the front 
porch, respectively. 

The sundial in the Upjohn sketch has not been found and may have been 
conjectural . 

Furniture of the President's House, c. 1837-39 



The following furnishings are documented as having been purchased or 
repaired during Van Buren' s occupancy of the President's House in 
Washington, D.C., c. 1837-39. 



212 



Recommendations for furnishing Lindenwald have not taken these items 
into consideration, however, the reader should be aware that such 
furnishings were available and familiar to Van Buren and in many 
cases, would have been found in the Lindenwald household as well. 

Furniture : chairs, sofas, dressing bureaus, statuary center table 
with marble top, washstands with marble tops, French bedsteads, pier 
tables, circular table, card table, wardrobe, dining table with two 
tops, secretary's desk, bookcases, letter box, writing stand, press 
bedstead, piano, footstools, music stool, screen French comfortables, 
divan and cushions 

Lighting Devices : chandeliers, column velvet lamps, cornucopia 

bracket branches, mantel branch lamps, candlesticks, snuffers and 

tray, passage lamp, peg lamp, astral lamp, glass chimneys, lamp 
glasses, kitchen lamps, lantern 

Glassware, Tableware, Silver : decanters, claret wines, finger cups, 
wine coolers, champaigns, water bottles, cruets, dishes, silver cream 
and coffee pots, plateau, black-handled knives, decanter sables, 
liquor stand, waiters, set casters 

Ceramics : goldband china plates, willow plates, bowls, saucers, 
mugs, pitchers, salts, soup tureen, covered jars, slop bowls, bakers, 
china coffees, sugar vases, nappies, ewers and basins, toilet sets, 
chambers, foottubs 

Textiles (Bedding, table linens, misc., window hangings, floor 
coverings) : paillasses, hair mattresses; featherbeds, bolsters, 
pillows in linen tick; blankets, counterpanes, Marseilles quilts, 
cotton sheeting, Russia sheeting, fine pillow-case linen, flannels, 
flushing 



213 



Irish linen, damask napkins, tablecloths round and square, chamber 
towels, damask diaper, huckabuck towels, glass cloths, aprons, check 
dusters, knife cloths, straining cloths, plaid check, ticklenberg, 
crash, green broadcloth for table cover, cotton tick, drab cloth, 
gimp, baize, brown Holland, sacking bottom for servants, green merino 
for bookcase, green worsted binding, screen covers, bureau covers, 
chair and sofa covers, furniture chintz, muslin lining 

silk cord and tassels for curtain ornament, cotton and bordering, 
galloon, taffeta, satin medallion and plain satin, gauze, damask, 
silk fringe, cotton fringe, cornices, iron rods and brass rings 

Saxony carpeting, Brussels carpeting (body and border), Wilton 
carpeting, hearth rugs, matting 

Cooking, Laundry, Housekeeping, Heating, and Miscellaneous Devices : 
hand bell, milk strainer and skimmer, tart pans, churn, plate warmer, 
12 gallon pot, oven and lid, griddles, biscuit baker, saucepans, 
stewpans, stone milk pans, lemon squeezer, fish kettle and strainer, 
teaboiler, corkscrew, jelly mould, coffee mill, apple chove, tonque 
cutter, grate pans, tin mould, coffee boiler, coffee pots, coffee 
biggon, Britannia metal tablespoons, teaspoons, and coffee pot, 
toaster, gimblets, wood bowls, wooden spoons, hair sifters, baffed 
tablespoon 

plate baskets, covered market basket, 6-hold bottle basket, Manilla 
mat, Alicant mats 

tin buckets, chamber buckets, horse buckets, water buckets, slop 
buckets, cobweb brushes, hearth brushes, brooms, hand scrubs, 
japanned sweeping brush, dusters, shovels, oil can, hammers, scissors 



214 



clothes baskets, sad irons, iron stands, large wash boilers, wash 
kettles, large tub 

coal skuttles, brass andirons; steel tongs, shovels, pokers and 
supports; fire screens 



215 



RECOMMENDED FURNISHINGS 



Introduction 



The recommendations for furnishings for 20 rooms located on the 
first, second, and basement floors of the original 1797 house and 
1849-50 addition are based on the following criteria: 

1. Physical evidence of room functions and furnishings --Struc- 
tural evidence indicating room function, furnishings placement, and 
the existence of wall and floor coverings, is detailed in the His- 
toric Structure Report and the preceding sections of this Historic 
Furnishings Report. Extant furnishings in MAVA's and other collec- 
tions provide additional insight and are also discussed in the pre- 
ceding sections of this report. 

2. Period documentary evidence of room functions and furnishings 
--The Historic Resource Study and Historic Structure Report present 
numerous period references for room functions and research for the 
Historic Furnishings Report (Evidence of Room Use and Furnishings) 
revealed significant additional documentation for Lindenwald furn- 
ishings during the historic period, 1841-62. 

3. Post-historic period evidence of room functions and furnish- 
ings— Photographs of Lindenwald 1890s-1930s, written sources dating 
after 1862, and oral tradition, have contributed valuable information 
for the various historic studies completed to date. 

Although furniture arrangement at Lindenwald during the historic 
period is not well documented, the recommended locations dre based 
primarily on the evidence which exists, secondarily on nineteenth 
century period practices, logic, and the need to facilitate visitor 
flow and object security. 



216 



Selected period sources on furnishings and household economy, as well 
as recent studies in the history of the decorative arts in America, 
are cited in the Bibliography under Published Materials (Furnish- 
ings). These are collectively cited as "period sources" in the text 
of this report. 

Original Lindenwald or Van Burenassociated furnishings are to be used 
as extensively as possible, supplemented selectively with period or 
reproduction furnishings necessary for the interpretation of specific 
themes. 

The Historic Furnishings Report is a summary and synthesis of what is 
currently known about Lindenwald's occupants and furnishings during 
Martin Van Buren's residence there. As new information becomes 
available, changes in furnishings arrangements and interpretation may 
be necessary. Any major changes will be documented in supplements to 
this report. 

Rooms to be furnished as the highest priority include (for floor 
plans, see pp. 5-7): 

101 lower ("best") bedroom 

104 sitting room 

105 hall 

106 drawing room/parlor 

109 breakfast room/dining room 

111 library 

114-116 bathroom/water closet 
209 Martin Van Bu ren bedroom 



217 



Rooms to be partially furnished include: 

112 Smith Thompson Van Buren bedroom 

118 nursery 

201 John Van Buren bedroom 

205 Angelica and Abraham Van Buren bedroom 
206-208 upper hall and temporary bedroom 

210 Martin Van Buren Jr. bedroom 

005 servants' dining room 

006 kitchen 

007 wash room (laundry) 

Passageways needing only floor coverings include: 

110 stair hall 

113 hallway 
117 hallway 

119 entrance hall 

120 back hall 



218 



ROOM 101— BEDROOM 

Introduction 

Documentary evidence indicates that this is the "downstairs" or 
"lower bedroom" Van Buren intended "to be the best Bed Room" when he 
moved into Lindenwald in 1841. "The paper should be good," he 
advised his friend, Mrs. Harriet Butler. Mrs. Butler had samples of 
two papers sent to Kinderhook. The only physical evidence, however, 
of original wallpaper for this room comes from the fireboard which 
has a scenic paper with a border, the latter matching the border on 
the fireboard on room 205 ("upper" or northeast bedroom). There are 
no extant furnishings specifically associated with this room and no 
information on which of the Van Buren family or guests used this 
bedroom during their visits to Lindenwald. 

The 1970 Master Plan reference to this as a "dining room" derives 
undoubtedly from Victor deProsse's 1937 measured drawings. DeProsse 
probably was influenced by George Alfred Townsend's 1891 description 
of the house. Note, however, that the deProsse photographs from c. 
1930s show the room furnished as a bedroom (Illustration 1-2). 
Visitors will look into, but not enter the room. 



Furniture MAVA Cat. No. 



1. Object: late classical style sleigh bed , 347 

1830-40 

Location: east wal 1 

Documentation: Beds--Extant, #1 

MAVA 347 is an original Lindenwald furnishing. 



219 



2. Object: large late classical style wardrobe , 244 

1830-40 

Location: north side of west wall 

Documentation: Wardrobes — Extant, #3 

MAVA 244 is likely an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

3. Object: late classical style ches t of 44 

drawers , 1830-40 

Location: east side of south wall 

Documentation: Chests of Drawers/Commodes/Cupboards— 
Extant, #4 

MAVA 44 is possibly an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

4. Object: late classical style ogee mirror , 35 
Location: north wall over mantel 

Documentation: Mirrors—Extant, #2 

MAVA 35 is probably an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

Accessory furnishings 

5. Object: two pairs (4) of china candle- To be acquired 

sticks , c. 1840 [hereafter, TBA] 

Location: mantel and chest 
Documentation: Lighting Devices—Reference 6 



6. Object: bed linens, blankets, coverlet , TBA (R) 

1840-45 (period or reproduction ) 

Location: bed 

Documentation: Textiles— References 9-11; period sources 
(design & construction) 



220 



7. Object: 



scenic wallpaper-covered fir eboard, 
"Vue d'Ecosse," c. 1840 



88 



Location: fireplace 
Documentation: Fireboards—Extant, #1 
MAVA 88 is original to this room. 



Wall Hangings 
8. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation: 



framed pai ntings or prints (2), TBA 

1830-55 

over bed 

(Pictures/Portraits--Reference 19); subjects 
might be similar to those purchased by STVB and 
JVB at American Art-Union sale, 1852. 



Floor Coverings 
9. Object: 

Location: 

Documentation 



Painted canvas floorcloth 

floor, wall to wall 

Wool fibres found with tacks in this 
room could not be identified with any 
particular type of carpet. Plain floor- 
cloth is suggested in lieu of carpet. 



TBA (R) 



Window Treatment 
10. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation: 



two (2) pair reproduction white 
muslin curtains , 1840-45 

windows 

Textiles—Reference 14, 15; period 
sources (design and construction) 



TBA (R) 



221 



Wall Treatment 

11. Object: reproduction wa llpaper (brown, yellow TBA (R) 

and green foliate pattern on white) 
and flocked floral bord er, c. 1840 

Location: walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

No Van Buren period wallpaper was found in this room; 
however, reproductions of MAVA W 018 and border from 
fireboard (MAVA 90) found in room 205 are recommended. 



ROOM 104--SITTING ROOM 

Introduction 

The function of this room has not been clearly identified either 
through documentary or physical evidence, although its location, its 
original 1797 architectural detailing, and the white marble mantel 
installed by Van Buren in 1841 suggest the room served as a primary 
space. Similar gilt pier mirrors occupy the area between the east 
windows in both this room and room 106, suggesting that the function 
of the rooms was similar. 

In June 1843, Angelica Van Buren wrote her mother: "We have had 
fires in the sitting room nearly ewery day this week." It is recom- 
mended that room 104 be interpreted as such a room where family and 
close friends gathered informally for reading, sewing, music, and 
conversation. 

Photographs c. 1930s (Illustrations 3-5) show the historic period 
wallpaper and Brussels carpet, both of which will be reproduced. 



222 



The pier mirror and a scenic fireboard are the only furnishings 
specifically associated with this room during the historic period, 
but there are numerous Lindenwald or Van Buren furnishings in MAVA's 
collection which would be appropriate. 

Visitors will look into but not enter the room. 



Furniture MAVA Cat. No, 



1. Object: gold leaf framed pier mirror , 23 

1830-40 

Location: east wall between windows 

Documentation: Mirrors—Extant, #1; Figures 12, 14, 15. 

MAVA 23 is an original Lindenwald piece found in situ . 



2. Object: large upholstered sofa , late clas- 115 

sical style, 1835-"4"5" 

Location: northeast side of room, to right of 

fireplace 

Documentation: Sofas — Extant, #5 

MAVA 115 is an original Lindenwald piece, reuphol stered 
in gold silk and cotton damask. 



3. Object: small upholstered side chair , late 116 

classical style, 1835-45 

Location: to right of sofa 

Documentation: Chairs—Extant, #6 

MAVA 116 is an original Lindenwald piece matching 
sofa #115. 



223 



4. Object: tilt-top pedestal center table , 128 

1835-45 

Location: centered in front of fireplace 

Documentation: Tables--Extant, #6 

MAVA 128 is likely an original Lindenwald piece. 

5. Object: four (4) cane-seat side chairs , 148-151 

late classical /Gothic style with 
cushions, 1825-40 

Location: around center table and in northwest 

corner 

Documentation: Chairs--Extant, #4 

MAVA 148-151 are likely original Lindenwald furnishings. 

6. Object: round cand le stand , Empire style with 147 

ormolu trim, 1815-20 

Location: next to sofa 115 

Documentation: Tables/Stands—Extant, #7 

MAVA 147, associated with MVB, may be an original 
Lindenwald piece. 



7. Object: sofa, Empire style, 1820-40 TBA 

or 
Location: south wall 242 

Documentation: Sofas--Extant, #8 

MAVA 242, (Extant #9) reupholstered in black horsehair 
cloth, is appropriate in lieu of original Van Buren 
sofa in the White House collection. 



8. Object: secretary-bookcase, late classical style 125 

1835-45 

Location: west wall 



224 



Documentation: secretaries/bookcases/desk — Extant #2 
MAVA 125 is possibly an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

9. Object: sewing or work table , late classical 146 

style, 1835-45 

Location: northeast corner 

Documentation: Tables/Stands--Extant, #14; 

MAVA 146, possibly an original Lindenwald furnishing, 
is appropriate. 

Accessory Furnishings 

10. Object: two (2) lighting devices , 1820-45 TBA (R) 
Location: tables 

Documentation: Lighting Devices--Reference 7 

One reproduction brass candlestick on center table 
and one on the candlestand. 

11. Object: books (3), 1800-60, and magazines (3), TBA 

1850-60 

Location: on center table 

Documentation: Books/Documents- -References 

Period books of a literary or religious nature to be 
acquired and contemporary magazines. 

12. Object: Pair of vases , c. 1850 1169, 1170 

Location: mantel shelf 

Documentation: period sources; Ceramics--Extant, #9 
General Furnishings Reference 2 

Polychromed Delft ornaments representative of mid- 
nineteenth century taste, said to be from Lindenwald. 



225 



13. Object: sewing tools and accoutrements , 1835-45 
Location: sewing/work table 
Documentation: Angelica Van Buren correspondence. 



TBA 



14. Object: 



wallpaper-covered fireboard , c. 1840 
(optional /seasonal"] - 



Location: fireplace, fitting over andirons 

Documentation: Fireboards — Extant, #2 

MAVA 85 is the original fireboard for this room (Fig. 4) 



85 



15. Object: 



Location: 
Documentation: 



pair of andirons and set of fire tools , 
c. 1840 

fireplace 

fireboard 85 is cut to fit andirons; 
Heating Devices References 1, 2, 4; 
Extant #6 



TBA 



16. Object: 



Location: 
Documentation: 



silk table cover (period or 
reproductfon) , 1840-60 

center table 

Textiles—References 5, 18; period 
sources (design and construction) 



TBA 
(optional [ 



Wall Hangings 

17. Object: framed pictures , 1840-60 

Location: over mantel and on south wall 

Documentation: Pictures/Portraits--References 3, 19 

Period paintings or prints and frames to be acquired, 
including print of Queen Victoria (over mantel) and 
prints or paintings similar to ones bought in 1852. 



TBA 



226 



Floor Coverings 

18. Object: reproduction Brussels carpet , TBA (R) 

geometric design, 1840-60 

Location: floor, wall to wall 

Documentation: Textiles — References 7, 13, 14, 24; 
Figs. 3-5 

Borderless carpet to be reproduced from photographs 

Window Treatment 

19. Object: four (4) reproduction valances , 1840-60 TBA (R) 

Location: above windows on north and east sides 

of room 

Documentation: Textiles—Reference 14; period sources 
(design and construction) 

Reproduction fabric and trim to coordinate with 
carpet and upholstery. 



20. Object: four (4) pairs reproduction floor- TBA (R) 

length curtains , 1840-60 

Location: windows 

Documentation: Textiles — Reference 14; period sources 
(design and construction) 

Reproduction fabric and trim matching valances. 

21. Object: four (4) pairs reproduction white TBA (R) 

floor-length muslin under curtains , 
1840-60 

Location: windows 

Documentation: Textiles—References 14, 15; period 
sources 



227 



22. Object: four (4) pairs tiebacks and tiebacks TBA 

pins , 1840-60 

Location: window casings 

Documentation: Fig. 14; period sources, (design) 

Reproduction tiebacks matching curtain trim and 
period or reproduction glass or brass tieback pins to 
be acquired. 

Wall Treatment 

23. Object: reproduction wallpaper (gray and black TBA (R) 

star motif on light gray ground), with 
gray and green acanthus leaf border , 
c. 1840 

Location: all walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study;" Figs. 3-5 

MAVA W003, original wall covering for this room, found 
in situ , and border 002 F from fireboard to be 
reproduced. 



ROOM 105— HALL 

Introduction 

In 1843, Gideon Welles remarked upon the "most spacious hall extend- 
ing through the body of the house" and Van Buren family correspon- 
dence refers to the "Hall" and "lower hall." Although there is no 
specific period reference to a "banquet hall," it is assumed that the 
15-foot-long dining table was used for entertaining in this room 
during the historic period. 

The only period reference to particular furnishings is to a "hall 
sofa" used by Angelica Van Buren. Post-historic period references 
mention the use of sideboards and a mahogany console. Photographs 



228 



c. 1917 and 1930s show the room furnished with French scenic wall- 
paper, Brussels carpet, a sofa-bed, card tables, and chandelier, all 
of which are extant. The dining table had been sold at auction c. 
1864 and evidently the dining function of the room ceased later in 
the century. 

It is recommended that the dining table be fully extended and set 
for the dessert course, using the green glassware associated with 
Van Buren. 

Visitors will walk through the hall and furnishings should be secure- 
ly placed out of their path. 



Furniture 

1. Object: Empire style side board, 1815-25 114 

Location: south wall, to right of Room 106 

doorway 

Documentation: Sideboards—Extant, #2 

MAVA 114 is likely an original Lindenwald furnishing. 



2. Object: Federal style sideboard, 1790-1800 724 

or 
Location: south wall, to left of Room 110 TBA 

stairway 

Documentation: Sideboards--Extant, #3, 6. 

A Van Buren family sideboard (private collection), 
possibly from Lindenwald, is appropriate, if available. 

MAVA 724, possibly associated with Martin Van Buren, 
can be used in lieu of the other sideboard, though 
it dates a bit later, 1810-20. 



229 



3. Object: Federal style New York accordion- TBA 

action extension dining table , 
1800-15 



Location: southwest side of room, parallel to 

south wall 

Documentation: Tables--Extant, #21. 

If efforts to obtain the original Lindenwald dining 
table (private collection) as a gift or loan are not 
successful, a reproduction would be the preferred 
alternative. 



4. Object: thirty (30) klismos 262-269, 1174, 1175 

dining chairs with upholstered and TBA (20) 

seats, 1820-35 

Location: around table and against walls 

Documentation: Chairs — Extant, #2 

MAVA 262-269, 1174, 1175, dre original Lindenwald 
furnishings with seats reuphol stered in black horse- 
hair cloth. Twenty (20) matching period or reproduction 
chairs to be acquired. 

5. Object: pair of card tables, late classical 349 

style, 1830-40 103 

Location: southeast and northeast corners 

Documentation: Tables--Extant, #4, 13 

MAVA 349 is an original Lindenwald piece. MAVA 103 
could be used in lieu of #349 's mate, which is in 
a private col lection. 

6. Object: upholstered sofa-bed late classical 3 

style, 1830-40 

Location: north wall, to left of Room 104 doorway 

Documentation: Sofas--Extant, #2 

MAVA 3 is an original Lindenwald furnishing, reuphol- 
stered in black horsehair cloth. 

230 



7. Object: upholstered sofa late classical style, 270 

1830-40 

Location: north wall, to right of Room 101 

doorway 

Documentation: Sofas — Extant, #3 

MAVA 270 is an original Lindenwald piece, reuphol- 
stered in black horsehair cloth. 



8. Object: card table , late classical style, 34 

1835-40 

Location: northwest corner 

Documentation: Tables--Extant, #11 

MAVA 34 is likely an original Lindenwald piece. 



Accessory Furnishings 

9. Object: four-light chandelier , iron, 1850-60, 22 

with later glass chimneys and globes, 

Location: hung from ceiling, central medallion 

Documentation: Lighting Devices — Extant, #4; Figs. 6 
and 8 

MAVA 22 is probably an original Van Buren piece still TBA 

in place in this room. Period or reproduction chimneys 
and globes to be acquired. 



10. Object: Candlesticks with hurricane shades TBA 

(4 pairs), 1830-60 

Location: on tables 

Documentation: Lighting Devices Reference; period 
sources (design) 

Reproduction candlesticks to be acquired. Reproduc- 
tions are suggested here and elsewhere because they 
may be used for special candlelight programs. They 
may also be needed for illumination on dark days, 
since no other lighting will be provided in the house. 



231 



11. Object: green glassware , 1830-60 730-795 

and TBA 
Location: dining table and sideboards 

Documentation: Glassware—Extant, #2, 4 

MAVA 730-795 are likely original Lindenwald furnishings. 
The gilt-decorated set includes a punch bowl and cups, 
tazzas, epergnes, and dessert plates. Original plain 
green glass fingerbowls in private collections are also 
appropriate; if not available, similar ones should be 
acquired. 

12. Object: engraved repousse silver ice bowl and TBA 

two silver pitchers , c. 1853 

Location: sideboard 

Documentation: Silver--Extant, #2, 3 

The original ice bowl is in a private collection. One 

of the pitchers is in the White House collection 

(WH 913.2856) and the other pitcher is in a private 
col lection. 

13. Object: assorted silver tableware and flatware , TBA 

1820-50 

Location: table and sideboards 

Documentation: Silver—References 1-6, 8, 14; Extant— 
#6, 7 

Tableware might include a plateau, wine coolers, 
covered serving dishes, and a teapot. Original 
silver flatware is in private collection. 



14. Object: assorted bottles , decanters , and TBA 

glassware , 1830-50 

Location: table, sideboards 

Documentation: Glassware- -References 

See also room 109, #11. 



232 



NOTE: There is documentation for a "Dutch Clock" (Clocks—Reference 
2) in the hall at Lindenwald. If such a clock could be identified, 
it would be appropriate. 

Tablecloths and napkins are also mentioned frequently (Textiles 
Reference 8-10, 12, 13, 16) and would be appropriate if table 
were set for a meal . 

Van Buren owned a cellarette at his Albany home in 1829 (Sideboard 
References 3, 4). A cellarette would be most appropriate on the 
south wall, between the sideboards, if one with a VB association 
can be found. 



Floor Coverings 

15. Object: reproduction multicolored Brussels TBA (R) 

carpet with border , geometric design, 
1840-60 

Location: floor, wall to wall 

Documentation: Textiles—References 22-25; 
Figs. 6-9. 

MAVA 21, the original carpet for this room, will be 
reproduced. 



Wall Hangings 

16. Object: reproduction of Van Buren coat of arms , TBA (R) 

framed, c. 1850 

Location: west wall 

Documentation: Pictures and Portraits — 
References 27, 28. 

Reproduction to be acquired if original unavailable. 



Window Treatment 
none 



233 



Wall Treatment 

17. Object: French scenic wallpaper , "Paysages Original 

a Chasse," and balustrade dado , and rep™ 
1830-40 

Location: all walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study;" Figs. 8, 9. 

The original scenic wallpaper produced by the Zuber 
Company and the original dado produced by Jacquemart 
et Bernard were found in situ , have been restored, and 
will be replaced on the north and south walls. 
Reproduction wallpaper and dado will be placed on 
east and west wal Is. 



ROOM 106— DRAWING ROOM or PARLOR 

Introduction 

Original 1797 architectural detailing and the gray marble mantel in- 
stalled by Van Buren in 1841 indicate that this room, located in the 
southeastern corner of the house, was the most formal space during 
the historic period. The term "drawing room" was used both by Van 
Buren in his autobiography and by Harriet Butler in her correspon- 
dence, although visitors to Lindenwald, such as William G. Bryan in 
1845, wrote of the "parlor." 

This room is connected, through an elaborate ogee arch, to room 109, 
the dining room, and the rooms were similarly wallpapered in 1841. 
In the process of decorating his Washington residence, Van Buren 
wrote in July 1829: "I think the carpets and curtains in the drawing 
room and dining room should be alike." It is highly likely that this 
same scheme was carried out in Lindenwald as well. 



234 



There are no period references to specific furniture for this room, 
although W. G. Bryan mentioned seeing portraits of Jefferson and 
Jackson in the "parlor," presumably the same ones Van Buren himself 
mentioned five years earlier as being in the "dining room." Photo- 
graphs from the 1930s show the original 12-piece Gothic revival- 
style parlor set in this room, where it would have logically been 
during the historic period. The original gilt pier mirror, matching 
the one in room 104, and the original scenic fireboard for this room 
are also extant. 

The drawing room was used principally for the entertainment of guests 
either after dinner or in other formal visits. It is recommended 
that this room be interpreted to reflect that function. Activities 
such as card-playing, reading, and music might be suggested. 

The arrangement of furnishings will allow for visitor traffic flow 
through the room. 



Fu m i tu re 

1. Object: gold leaf framed pier mirror , 24 

1830-40 

Location: east wall between windows 

Documentation: Mirrors--Extant, #li Figs. 12, 14, 15 

MAVA 24 is an original Lindenwald pier mirror found 
in situ . 

2. Object: upholstered sofa , late classical/ 14 

Gothic style, 1835-55 

Location: northeast corner 

Documentation: Sofas— Extant, #1; Figs. 12, 15. 

MAVA 14 is an original Lindenwald piece reupholstered 
in persimmon-colored mohair plush based on fragment of 
original fabric. 



235 



3. Object: two (2) upholstered easy or arm 13, 60 

chairs, late classical /Gothic style, 
1835-55 

Location: east side of room and northwest corner 

Documentation: Chairs — Extant, #1; Fig. 10. 

MAVA 13 and 60 are original Lindenwald furnishings, 
reupholstered in persimmon-colored mohair plush to 
match sofa 14. 

4. Object: upholstered settee, late classical/ 02 

Gothic style, 1835-55 

Location: southeast corner 

Documentation: Sofas--Extant, #1; Fig. 13. 

MAVA 02 is an original Lindenwald piece reupholstered 
in persimmon-colored mohair plush to match sofa 14 and 
chairs 13 and 60. 

5. Object: card table , late classical/Gothic 07 

style, 1835-55 

Location: northwest corner 

Documentation: Tables—Extant, #2; Figs. 11, 13 

MAVA 07 is an original Lindenwald piece matching the 
above pieces. The table should be opened as if a card 
game such as whist were in progress (see Personal 
Accessories, Reference 3.) 



6. Object: marble-topped center table , late 26 

classical /Gothic style, 1835-55 

Location: east side of room, centered in front 

of pier mirror 

Documentation: Tables—Extant, #3; Fig. 12. 

MAVA 26 is an original Lindenwald piece matching the 
above pieces. 



236 






7. Object: six (6) side chairs with upholstered 54-59 

seats, late classical/Gothic style, 
1835-55 

Location: around card table, center table, and 

by fireplace 

Documentation: Chairs--Extant, #1; Figs. 11, 12, 15. 

MAVA 54-59 are original Lindenwald furnishings 
matching sofa 14 and chairs 13 and 60 and similarly 
reupholstered in persimmon plush. 



8. Object: melodeon , rococo revival style, 1850-60 348 

Location: southwest corner along west wall 

Documentation: Musical Instruments — Extant, #1; 
Figs. 12, 14. 

MAVA 348 is an original Lindenwald piece. 

9. Object: piano stool , rococo revival style, TBA 

1850-60 

Location: by melodeon 
Documentation: Fig. 12. 

Accessory Furnishings 

10. Object: brass sinumbra lamp with glass shade 124 

and prisms, 1835-45 

Location: center table 

Documentation: Lighting Devices — Extant, #1. 

MAVA 124 is likely an original Lindenwald piece. 



11. Object: pair of brass candelabra with prisms, 673, 674 

1830-5U 

Location: mantel shelf 



237 



Documentation: Lighting Devices—Extant, #2. 

MAVA 673 and 674 are likely original Lindenwald furnishings. 

12. Object: four (4) candlesticks with hurricane TBA (R) 

shades , 1840-60 

Location: card table and melodeon 

Documentation: Lighting Devices—Reference 7 

Reproduction brass candlesticks and glass shades to 
be acquired. 

13. Object: sheet music , 1840-60 TBA 

Location: melodeon 

Documentation: "President Van Buren's Grand March" 
by Samuel Corusi is appropriate 

Period sheet music to be acquired. 

14. Object: books and newspapers , 1840-60 TBA 
Location: center table 

Documentation: Books/Documents- -References. 

Period books and newspapers representative of the 
tastes and interests of the Van Burens to be acquired. 



15. Object: deck of playing cards and counters TBA 

with box, 1840-60 

Location: card table 

Documentation: There are numerous references to play- 
ing whist and Loo in the Van Buren family 
correspondence 

Period or reproduction playing cards and counters to 
be acquired. 



238 



16. Object: wallpaper-covered fireboard, c. 1840 84 

( optional /sea son all~ 

Location: fireplace, fitting over andirons 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA 84 is an original furnishing for this room. 

17. Object: pair of andirons , c. 1840 and fi retools TBA 

Location: fireplace 

Documentation: Fireboard (MAVA 84) is cut to fit 

andirons; Heating Devices—References 
1, 2, 4,; Extant #6 

Period or reproduction andirons to be acquired. 

Period or reproduction fir eplace ac cessories including 

fender, shovel, tongs, poker, etc. wTTT~need to be 
acquired. 



18. Object: jar with lid, quasi-Oriental motif, 1173 

mid-19th century 

Location: mantel 

Documentation: Ceramics—Extant, #11; General Furnishings 
Reference 2. This jar is said to have 
come from Lindenwald. 



Wal l Han gings 

19. Object: framed print or painting TBA 

Location: west wall, to left of door 

Documentation: Pictures/Portraits— Reference 19; 
HSR, "Room 106" 

A print or painting similar to those purchased in 1852 
would be appropriate here. 



239 



20. Object: framed print or painting 
Location: west wall, to right of door 
Documentation: See #20, above. 



TBA 



21. Object: 



Location: 
Documentation: 



framed portrait painting of Andrew 
Jackson by Earl, c. 1840 

north wall, to left of door 

Pictures/Portraits—References 8, 9, 
14; HSR, "Room 106" 



TBA 



22. Object: 



Location: 
Documentation: 



framed portrait painting of Thomas 
Jefferson, c. 1800-40 

north wall, to right of door 

Same as #22, above. 



TBA 



23. Object: framed pai nting or print , 1840-60 
Location: south wall, over mantel 
Documentation: Pictures/Portraits; physical evidence 
Period painting or print and frame to be acquired. 



TBA 



Note: All pictures in this room are to be hung from existing hook 
or buttons. 



Floor C overings 
24. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation: 



reproduction Brussel s carpet , geometric 
design, 1840-60 

on floor, wall to wall 

Figs. 13-15; Textiles—Extant #2, 
References 13, 14 



The carpet in the 1930s photographs has disappeared, 
but MAVA 351, found in Lindenwald, is appropriate to 
reproduce. 



TBA (R) 



240 



25. Object: reproduction grass matting , 1840-60 TBA (R) 

(optional) 

Location: on floor, wall to wall, under or in 
lieu of carpet in summer 

Documentation: Textiles — Reference 11; Extant #8; 
HSR, "Room 106" 

A reproduction of MAVA 556 found under the pier 
mirror in room 106 would be appropriate, but the use 
of matting in this room is not recommended because it 
would be hard to maintain and to make necessary 
seasonal changes. 



Window Treatment 

26. Object: four (4) reproduction valances, TBA (R) 

1840-60 

Location: above windows on east and south sides 

of room 

Documentation: Textiles Reference 14; HSR, "Room 106;" 
period sources (design & construction) 

Reproduction fabric and trim coordinating with wall- 
paper and upholstery to be acquired for period design 
valances. Valances to be hung from existing hooks in 
the walls. 



27. Object: four pairs, reproduction floor-length TBA (R) 

curtains , c. 1840-60 

Location: windows on east and south sides of 

room 

Documentation: Textiles — Reference 14 (design and 
construction) 

Reproduction fabric and trim matching valances to be 
acquired. 



241 



28. Object: four pairs, reproduction white floor- TBA (R) 

length muslin under curtains , 
c. 1840-60 



Location: windows on east and south sides of room 

Documentation: Textiles References 14, 15; period sources 
(design and construction) 



29. Object: four pairs, tiebacks and brass tieback 931-942 

pins , 1840-60 and TBA (R) 

Location: window casings on east and south sides 
of room 

Documentation: Fig. 14; period sources 

Reproduction tiebacks matching curtain trim to be 
acquired. 



Wall Treatment 

30. Object: reproduction gold, gray, white TBA (R) 

striped/floral embossed wallpaper 
with brown and gold geometric flocked 
border , c. 1840 

Location: all walls of room 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA W006 and border, original wall coverings for this 
room found in situ, to be reproduced. 



ROOM 109— DINING ROOM or BREAKFAST ROOM 

Introduction 

This small room adjacent to room 106 clearly served a "dining" 
function, as physical and documentary evidence indicate. Initial 
1841 references are to a "dining room," while in 1849, the term 



242 



"Breakfast Room" appears in Upjohn' s plans and correspondence. It 
is not clear whether the change in terminology actually reflected a 
limitation in the room's function, or whether the room continued to 
be used for informal dining throughout the historic period. Formal 
dining for a large party would have occurred in room 105 (Hall) or 
possibly even in room 106 (Drawing Room). 

It is recommended that an original plate warmer be used on the hearth 
rather than the original fireboard which is in poor condition. This 
room should be fully furnished with items from MAVA's collection, 
supplemented as necessary to interpret the breakfast function. 

Visitors will pass through this room between rooms 106 and 111. 
Furnishings must be carefully placed and secured in this very small 
space. 



Furniture 

1. Object: breakfast table late classical style, 77 

1830-60 

Location: in front of fireplace 

Documentation: Tables—Reference 5; Extant, #10 

MAVA 77, a drop-leaf table associated with Van Buren's 
brother Lawrence, is appropriate. 

2. Object: small marble-topped sideboard , late 42 

classical style, 1835-45 

Location: southeast corner against east wall 

Documentation: Sideboards—Extant, #1; Fig. 16 

MAVA 42 is an original Lindenwald piece. 



243 



3. Object: Empire style bureau desk , 1825-45 9 

Location: west wall 

Documentation: Secretaries/Bookcases/Desks Extant, #3, 
General Furnishings Reference #28 

MAVA 9 may be an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

4. Object: sid eboard, late classical pillar and 76 

scroll style, 1830-40 

Location: north wall 

Documentation: Sideboards—Reference 7; Extant, #4 

MAVA 76, associated with Lawrence Van Buren, is 
appropriate. 



5. Object: four (4) sid e chairs with upholstered TBA 

seats, Grecian styTe, 1830-40 

Location: around table and against north and 

west walls 

Documentation: Chairs—Extant, #11, 12 

WH 962.287.14, four (4) original Lindenwald side 
chairs with black horsehair cloth seats in the White 
House collection. 



Accessory Furnishings 

6. Object: painted tinned-iron pla te warmer, 271 

1840-50 

Location: hearth 

Documentation: Housekeeping Accessories— Extant #1; 
Fig. 4 

MAVA 271 is an original Lindenwald piece. 



244 



7. Object: porcelain and glass coffeemaker , 728 

c. 1850 

Location: small sideboard 

Documentation: Ceramics— Extant, #3 

MAVA 728 is probably an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

8. Object: tea and breakfast service , French 160-169 

china, 1835-45 and TBA 

Location: sideboards, plate warmer 

Documentation: Ceramics—Reference 4; Extant, #1, 2, 8 

MAVA 160-169, gold-banded porcelain teapot, sugar bowl, 
and plates associated with Martin Van Buren may be 
used with additional matching pieces, privately owned, 
if available. 

9. Object: assorted gla s sware , English, 1835-40 TBA 
Locationa: sideboards 

Documentation: Glassware—References 3-6 

If the engraved "Queen's Pattern" or Nemours" pattern 
produced by Davenport can be identified, pieces cor- 
responding with the 1839 invoice to MVB, such as 
water carafes and tumblers, decanters, wine glasses, 
etc., would be appropriate. 



10. Object: two (2) mantel lam ps and three (3) TBA 

pairs of candlest ick's with shades , 
1840-60 

Location: mantel shelf (lamps), table and 

sideboards (candlesticks) 

Documentation: Lighting Devices—References 1, 3, 5 

Period or reproduction lamps and brass candlesticks 
with glass shades to be acquired. 



245 



11. Object: polychrome delft jar with lid, c. 1850 1172 

Location: mantel shelf 

Documentation: Ceramics— Extant, #10; General Furnishings 
Reference 2. This piece is said to have 
come from Lindenwald 

12. Object: Compote, glass, with star motif, c. 1840 1171 

Location: on table 

Documentation: Glassware—Extant, #6. This piece has a 
possible Lindenwald association 

13. Object: wallpaper-covered fireboard, c. 1840 87 

( optional /sea son alT~ 

Location: fireplace 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA 87 is the original fireboard used in this room. 
It is in very poor condition. 



14. Object: pair and irons and set of fireplace TBA 

tools , 1840 

Location: fireplace 

Documentation: Heating Devices—References 1, 2, 4; 
Extant #6 

Period or reproduction fireplace accessories including 
andirons, fender, shovel, tongs, and poker would be 
appropriate. 



NOTE: Table cloths and napkins (Textile References 8-10, 12, 13, 16) 
would be appropriate if the table were set for a meal. 

Other specific tableware mentioned in VB correspondence (1841-44) 

includes a bladed knife, cork screw, fish knife, forks, tea bell, 

cruet stand, teapot (General Furnishings Reference 19), vegetable 

dishes (Ceramics Reference 5), and china teapot (Ceramics Reference 
2). 



246 



Wall Hangings 

15. Object: assorted small framed period prints TBA 

or paintings , 1830-50 

Location: north, west, east walls and south wall 

over mantel 



Documentation: Pictures/Portraits 

Although Van Buren referred in 1841 to portraits of 
Andrew Jackson and Thomas Jefferson in his "dining 
room," a later observer (1846) wrote of seeing them 
in the "parlor," presumably meaning room 106. In the 
absence of evidence on what may have taken their 
places here, subjects similar to Pictures/Portraits 
Reference 19 are suggested. There are no original 
hooks or picture-hanging buttons in the walls of 
this room. 



Floor Cove r ijn gs 

16. Object: reproduction Brussel s carpet , TBA (R) 

geometric design, 1840-60 

Location: floor, wall to wall 

Documentation: Textiles—References 7, 13, 14; Extant 

#2 

Reproduction carpet (MAVA 351) to be acquired for room 106 is 
appropriate for this room also. 



Wi ndo w Treatment 

17. Object: reproduction valance , curtains , under TBA (R) 

curtains , tiebacks, and pins 7~1840-60 
for one winicfow" 

Location: south wall 

Documentation: Textiles—References 4, 14, 15; period 
sources (design and construction) 

Window treatment should match room 106. 



247 



Wall Treatment 

18. Object: reproduction gold, gray, white striped/ TBA (R) 

floral embossed wallpaper with brown 
and gold geometric flocked bord er, 
c. 1840 

Location: all walls of room 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA W006 and border to be reproduced for room 106 is 
appropriate here as well. 

Room 111— LIBRARY 

Introduction 

This large room in the southern end of the Upjohn addition is perhaps 
the most problematic. While documentary and physical evidence leave 
no doubt of this room's function during the historic period, the 
appearance of the bookcases which originally lined the room is un- 
known and historical architects disagree about the placement of a 
door in the west wall leading into room 112. 

In 1843, Gideon Welles wrote of Lindenwald's library as a "large and 
very fine room, very well-filled with books." An excellent descrip- 
tion of Van Buren's library is found in William G. Bryan's letter 
recalling his visit to Lindenwald in April 1845: 

"I passed some hours in his Library . His collec- 
tion of books is large, and the number of works on 
all political subjects . . .is immense, even for 
a statesman . . . one side of the room seemed 
devoted to works of American Authors, exclusively 
... I must not forget to remark that I saw over 
the mantel piece of the Library an engraved like- 
ness of Mr. Clay, & that I saw scattered about the 
room a number of the vilest & funniest caricatures 
of himself. One, I recollect, exhibiting him as a 
fox hard chased by a pack of Whig hounds!" 



248 



Unfortunately, these descriptions do not relate to Room 111 which did 
not exist until 1849. The original library was likely located in one 
of the "wings" which were removed prior to the Upjohn renovations. 
Although we may surmise that the contents of Van Buren's library did 
not change dramatically, the new library room was furnished with a 
secretary and bookcases, designed by Upjohn himself. It is recom- 
mended that room 111 be furnished as much as possible with Van Buren 
pieces and other furnishings consistent with whatever evidence exists 
for both this room and the library of 1841-48. 

Visitors will pass through this room between room 109 and room 112 or 
113. 



Furniture 

1. Object: five (5) bookcases , including a sec TBA 

retary-bookcase covered with wire 
mesh, c. 1850 

Location: east, west, and south walls 

Documentation: Secretaries/Bookcases/Desks — 
References, HSR, "Room 111" 

Pending acquisition of period or reproduction bookcases 
compatible with Upjohn architectural details, MAVA 125 
(secretary-bookcase) will be used on west wall. 

2. Object: library table, late classical style, TBA 

1840-50 

Location: center of room 

Documentation: Tables--Extant, #22 

Original table is in collection of Smithsonian 
Institution. If not available, a similar period table 
or reproduction should be substituted. 

3. Object: upholstered side chair , Federal style, 1016 

1790-1800 

Location: next to table 

Documentation: Chairs — Extant #7 

249 



MAVA 1016 is an original Lindenwald furnishing, uphol- 
stered in black horsehair. Its style is inconsistent 
with the room, but it is an original VB piece. 



4. Object: upholstered rocking chair , late 32 

classical/rococo revival style, 
1840-50 

Location: south window alcove 

Documentation: Chairs—Extant, #8 

MAVA 32, possibly an original Lindenwald furnishing, 
reupholstered in black horsehair cloth, is appropriate. 

Accessory Furnishings 

5. Object: marble bust of Martin Van Buren by 967 

Hiram Powers, 1836-40 

Location: on pedestal in southwest corner 

Documentation: Sculpture—Extant, #1-3 

MAVA 967, a copy executed by Powers himself in 1863, 
is appropriate in lieu of the original bust in White 
House collection. 

6. Object: two to three hundred (200-300) books , 159, 170, 

17th century to 1860, relating To 216 and TBA 

law, politics, agriculture, and 
American subjects 

Location: bookcases 

Documentation: Books/Documents References; Extant #4 

185 volumes from Martin Van Buren' s law library are 
owned by the Association of the Bar of the City of 
New York. If not available, the same titles should 
be acquired, plus non-legal works. The bookcase 
to be used temporarily (MAVA 125) has 24 feet of 
shel f space. 



250 



7. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation 

8. Object: 
Location: 



newspapers, documents, and writing 
accessories , 1830-60 

table 



Books/Documents- -References 



lighting devices (3), 1830-60 

table and mantel shelf (pair of 
candlesticks) 



TBA 



Documentation: Lighting Devices References 
Reproduction devices to be acquired. 



TBA 



9. Object: fireplace accessories , 1850-60 

Location: fireplace 

Documentation: Heating Devices--Extant #6 
Period or reproduction accessories to be acquired, 



TBA 



Wall Hangings 
10. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation: 



framed engraved portr ait of Henry Clay, 
1835-45 

over mantel 

Portraits/Pi ctures--References 14-16 



TBA 



11. Object: 



framed portrait (probably of print) of 
Francis P. Blair, 1835-45 



Location: over mantel, next to portrait of Clay 

Documentation: Portraits/Pictures--Reference 15 
"Likeness" and a "fine frame" to be acquired. 



TBA 



251 



12. Object: framed engraved portrait of Andrew TBA 

Jackson by G. W. Childs, 1835-45 

Location: over mantel, above portraits of Blair 

and Clay 

Documentation: Portraits/Pictures— Reference 18 



13. Object: political cartoons , 1830-50 231-233, 

235, 237, 
Location: "scattered" 239 and TBA 

Documentation: Portraits/Pictures—Reference 14 

MAVA 231-233, 235, 237, 239 are appropriate. Other 
cartoons such as "The Fox Chace" to be acquired. 
Cartoons may be unframed and placed on library table, 
or framed and hung. 



Floor Covering 

15. Object: reproduction Brussel s carpet , TBA (R) 

c. 1850 

Location: on floor, wall to wall 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 111"; Textiles—References 
7, 13, 14 

Reproduction of MAVA 836 (carpet found in Lindenwald) 
is recommended in lieu of grass matting which is more 
difficult to maintain. 



ROOM 112— BEDROOM 

This room, located in the southwest portion of the 1849 addition, is 
believed to be the bedroom used by Smith Thompson Van Buren 1849-62. 
Unfortunately, there is no indication of how the room was furnished 
and there are no extant pieces either in MAVA's or other collections 
which are specifically associated with Smith T. Van Buren, his first 
wife, Ellen James, or his second wife, Henrietta Irving. 



252 



Smith T. Van Buren sent down furniture from his Albany residence in 
October 1849 as he and his family prepared to live in the newly 
renovated Lindenwald. The furnishings he sent very likely dated from 
the time of his marriage to Ellen James in 1842 and could have in- 
cluded some of her family heirlooms as well. Sadly, Ellen died 
before the move was completed and it was only Smith and his three 
children who shared Lindenwald with the ex-President and Martin Van 
Buren, Jr. 

When Smith remarried in 1855, additional furniture may have been 
acquired, but there is no evidence to prove that theory. Some ac- 
counts of furniture repairs for Smith's later residence in the Fish- 
kill area c. 1866 exist, but it is not known if these furnishings 
were originally from Lindenwald. 

The only evidence of the appearance of the room in the historic per- 
iod is a fragment of the rose and tan striped wallpaper which will be 
reproduced. Since to furnish this room at the present time would be 
conjectural, it is recommended that it remain empty unless appropriate 
Smith Van Buren pieces become available. 



ROOMS 114/115/116— BATHROOM and DRESSING AREA; WATER CLOSET; 
HALL 

Introduction 



These rooms located adjacent to room 112 in the addition were used as 
the bathroom and dressing area, water closet, and hall respectively, 
as physical and documentary evidence clearly indicate. 

The original bathtub and flush toilet exist and the three rooms will 
be restored and furnished to interpret their function. 



253 



Visitors will either pass through or view these rooms from their 
doorways. 



Furniture 

1. Object: copper-lined wooden-cased bathtub, 82 

c. 1849-50 

Location: northwest corner, 114 

Documentation: HSR, "Rooms 114/115/116," and 
"Plumbing System" 

MAVA 82 is the original Lindenwald bathtub. 



2. Object: marble-top sink , c. 1849-50 TBA 

Location: east wall, 114 

Documentation: HSR, "Rooms 114/115/116," and 
"Plumbing System" 

3. Object: small washstand , 1845-50 142 

Location: west wall 114 in front of window 

Documentation: Tables/Stands--Extant, #16 

MAVA 142, possibly an original Lindenwald furnishing, 
is appropriate. 



4. Object: wooden-cased water closet with 

Wedgwood bowl , c. 1849-5C 

Location: south wall, 115 

Documentation: HSR, "Rooms 114/115/116," and 
"Plumbing System" 

The original water closet exists in situ. 



254 



5. Object: ogee mirro r, late classical style, 

c. 18TCT0~ 

Location: southeast wall over fireplace 

Documentation: Mirrors—Extant, #4 

MAVA 111, possibly original, is appropriate. 



Accessor y Furnishings 

6. Object: assorted towels, soap, an d personal TBA 

accessories, 1845-50 

Location: washstand, sink 

Documentation: Textiles—Reference 16; Personal 
Accessories— References 7, 9 

Reproduction or period items to be acquired. 



ROOM 118— NURSERY 

This room in the south center portion of the 1849 addition was used 
as the nursery for Smith Thompson Van Buren's children. When Smith, 
a widower, moved into Lindenwald in 1849, he brought two daughters 
and a son. By 1860, five years after his second marriage, three more 
children had joined the ranks. 

Evidence indicates that the original wall treatment was a borderless 
wallpaper with a blue diamond and pink floral pattern. This wall- 
paper will be reproduced. 

The Historic Structures Report mentions that a "very large object" 
with straight sides and an overhanging cornice once occupied the 
south and west walls. There are no extant furnishings specifically 
associated with this room or with Smith's children. 



255 



It is recommended that photographs, portraits, and documents relating 
to Van Buren's grandchildren be used in this room in conjunction with 
whatever appropriate nursery furnishings become known and available. 
Selected period books and toys should be used to suggest the nursery 
function. 

Visitors will enter the room from hallway 119. 



ROOM 119— ENTRANCE HALL 

This long, narrow hall parallel to the west wall of the 1797 house, 
functioned as the hallway leading from the north entrance of the 
addition. There is no evidence of the specific furnishings for this 
room, or floor covering, and the walls were neither painted nor 
papered. 

Visitors will enter this hall from the exterior north door or from 
hallway 120 and the exterior west door. It is recommended that per- 
iod furnishings not be used here unless more documentation is found. 
A protective floor covering is recommended. 



ROOM 201— BEDROOM 

John Van Buren wrote his father on July 11, 1844, that his wife 
Elizabeth preferred the "back room second story" during her visits to 
Lindenwald. It is a large and pleasant room in the northwest corner 
of the 1797 house and it may well have been the room in which the 
couple spent their honeymoon three years earlier. 

The only furnishing specifically associated with this room is the 
fireboard (MAVA 91) which was covered with the same blue and pink 
curvelinear floral wallpaper as the room itself. The wallpaper and 

256 



the flocked floral border from the fireboard will be reproduced for 
this room. 

There is no evidence of how the room was furnished during the historic 
period; however, this room would be an appropriate place to interpret 
the personal and political life of "Prince John." Any artifacts as- 
sociated with John and Elizabeth Van Buren would be appropriately 
displayed here pending the acquisition of, or in conjunction with, 
other original Lindenwald or Van Buren-associated furnishings, as yet 
unidentified. 

Visitors will look into the room but will not enter it. 



ROOM 205— BEDROOM 

Introduction 

The correspondence of Angelica Van Buren clearly indicates that she 
and her husband Abraham occupied a second floor bedroom during their 
frequent and extended visits to Lindenwald. By the process of elim- 
ination, their room must have been 205, located in the northeastern 
corner of the original house. 

The architectural detailing in this room suggest that it, rather than 
room 201, may have been the "Bed room upstairs" for which Van Buren 
requested "a little more expensive" wallpaper in 1841. Mrs. Butler 
replied: "The paper for the upper bedroom, Harriet said she would 
have an eye to her own comfort as she might occasionally be an occu- 
pant of the room." 

The fireboard (MAVA 90), the only extant furnishing specifically as- 
sociated with this room, bore a scenic paper similar to the one used 
in room 104; it has badly deteriorated. On the other hand, there are 

257 



several documentary references to the furnishings used in Angelica's 
room and it is recommended that appropriate furnishings from MAVA's 
collection, supplemented as necessary, be used to interpret the signi- 
ficant presence of Van Buren's eldest son, his wife, and their child- 
ren. 

Visitors will look into the room but will not enter it. 

Furniture 

1. Object: painted wardrobe , late classical 243 

style, 1830-40 

Location: west wall 

Documentation: Wardrobes—Reference 1; Extant, #2 

MAVA 243 is likely an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

Accessory Furnishings 

2. Object: pair of candlesticks (reproduction), TBA (R) 

1840-50 

Location: mantel shelf 

Documentation: Lighting Devices References 

3. Object: wallpaper-covered fireboard , c. 1840 90 
Location: fireplace 

Documentation: HSR, Room 205, "Finishes Study" 
MAVA 90 is the original fireboard for this room. 

Wall H angings 

4. Object: framed engraving of Lady Wellesley, TBA 

the Duke of Wei lington's mother, 
pre-1843 

Location: over mantel 

Documentation: Portraits/Pictures—Reference 13 

258 



Window Treatment 

5. Object: four (4) pairs of reproduction muslin TBA (R) 

curtains , 1840-50 

Location: windows 

Documentation: Textiles, References 14, 15 

Wall Treatment 

6. Object: reproduction wallpaper (brown, yellow, TBA (R) 

and green foliate pattern on white) 
and flocked floral border , c. 1840 

Location: walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA WO 18, found in this room, is to be reproduced. 



ROOMS 206/207/208— UPPER HALL and BEDROOM 

Introduction 

Van Buren wrote to Mrs. Butler in 1841 suggesting that the wallpaper 
"for the hall upstairs including the temporary Bed Room at the end 
of it . . .be neat but not expensive. Something like that we first 
selected for the lower Hall might do." 

Rooms 206, 207, and 208, running the length of the center of the 1797 
house, are undoubtedly the rooms referred to, although the 1841 refer- 
ence is the only clue to their function during the historic period. 
It is not known if the "temporary" bedroom was ever used for another 
purpose. 

There are no references to specific furnishings for these rooms; 
however appropriate furnishings from MAVA's collection should be used 
to partially furnish them. 

259 



Visitors will pass through rooms 206 and 207 and will look into 208. 

Furniture 

1. Object: large painted-grain round-top pedestal 15 

center table , late classical style, 
1835-45 

Location: center of room 206 

Documentation: Tables--Extant, #5 

MAVA 15 is an original Lindenwald piece. 

2. Object: low wardrobe, late classical style, 31 

1835-45 

Location: north wall of room 208 

Documentation: Wardrobes — Extant, #6 

MAVA 31, possibly an original Lindenwald furnishing 
is appropriate. 

3. Object: low wardrobe, late classical 38 

style, 1835-45 

Location: south wall of room 208 

Documentation: Chests of Drawers--Extant, #10 

MAVA 38, possibly an original Lindenwald, is 
appropriate. 

Floor Coveri ng 

4. Object: grass matting TBA (R! 
Location: floor, wall-to-wall 

Documentation: Textile Reference 11, Extant 8, 9, 10 



260 



Wall Treatment 

5. Object: reproduction yellow diamond and green TBA (R) 

and red stripe on white wallpaper with 
flocked geometric border , c. 1840 

Location: walls of the three rooms 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA W015, original wallpaper for these rooms and the 
border from room 210 to be reproduced. 



ROOM 209— BEDROOM OF MARTIN VAN BUREN 

Introduction 

Oral tradition and secondary sources have identified the southeastern 
bedroom as the ex-President's. Dennis Tilden Lynch in his 1929 bio- 
graphy of Van Buren described the room c. 1862: 

"Two windows face the south; and two others catch 
the rays of the rising sun. On days when he is 
not too weak he sits in an easy chair covered 
with chintz. Against the southern wall, between 
the valanced windows, stands a large wardrobe with 
a mirror door. The sleigh-bed, of the same warm- 
tone mahogany from which the rest of the furniture 
is fashioned, is flanked on either side by a plain 
chest of drawers. On one of these is an unframed 
portrait of Silas Wright. It is small; and of the 
type our early artists called a cabinet. On top 
of the other is a Bible. In the center of the 
Windowless west wall hangs an illuminated tribute 
to Jackson. On either side of this momento of his 
friend is a silhouette of Van Buren. These, too, 
are simply framed. A shaving stand occupies a 
corner. Small rugs, woven of vari-colored rags, 
and three fiddle-back chairs, with seats of gray 
horse-hair, complete the furnishings." 

Unfortunately, Lynch does not indicate the source of his information 
and it is likely that the scene was reconstructed based on a visit to 



261 



Lindenwald during the Birney-deProsse occupancy. It is not known 
whether Lynch described only the furnishings he saw at that time or 
had other historical evidence as well. 



Lynch's description, while helpful, is not completely accurate. For 
example, he states that the wardrobe stood between the windows on the 
south wall. Clearly, he meant east wall, for the fireplace occupies 
the center of the south wall. Also, he mentions that two plain chests 
of drawers "flanked"the sleigh-bed. This could not have been done 
unless the chests were very small or the doors to rooms 207 and 208 
were permanently closed. And the door to room 210 is in the center 
of the "windowless west wall." It is also possible that Lynch was 
referring to room 205; see discussion under ROOM USE, Room 209. 

Lynch does identify a number of Van Buren furnishings which are ex- 
tant and it is recommended that they be used in this room to inter- 
pret the life of the ex-President at Lindenwald. Other items con- 
forming to Lynch's description as possible, other documentation, and 
period practice should be acquired to fully refurnish this room. 

Visitors will pass through this room from room 210 and into room 207. 

Furni t ure 

1. Object: large mahogany sleigh bed made by 1324 

William Shipman, New York City, late 
classical style, c. 1840 

Location: north wall 

Documentation: Beds--Extant, #3. 

MAVA 1324 is the original bed associated with MVB at 
Lindenwald. 

2. Object: mahogany ward robe with mirrored door, 12 

late classicaT~sTyle, 1840-50 

Location: east wall between windows 

262 



Documentation: Wardrobes—Extant, #1; Fig. 2. 

MAVA 12 is an original Lindenwald piece. The 
mirror has been replaced. 



3. Object: painted-grain shaving stand , late 06 

classical style, 1830-40 

Location: southeast corner 

Documentation: Tables/Stands—Extant, #1; Fig. 1. 

MAVA 06 is an original Lindenwald piece associated 
with the ex-President. 

4. Object: marble-topped commode or washstand , 350 

late classical style, 1830-40 

Location: east side of south wall in front of 

window 

Documentation: Chests--Extant, #1 

MAVA 350 is an original Lindenwald piece. 



5. Object: secretary-bookcase , late classical 05 

style, 1830-50 

Location: south side of west wall 

Documentation: Secretaries/Bookcases/Desk s-- 
Extant, #1; Fig. 3. 

MAVA 05 is an original Lindenwald piece. 



6. Object: swivel armchair with upholstered back, 83 

Elizabethan revival ( spool -turned ) , 
1850-55 

Location: next to secretary-bookcase 

Documentation: Chairs--Extant, #3; Fig. 3 

MAVA 83 is an original Lindenwald piece. It has 
been reuphol stered in brown leather based on the 
original fabric. 



263 



7. Object: 



upholstered easy chair , rococo revival 
style, 1845-55 



127 



Location: by fireplace 

Documentation: Chairs—Extant, #5. 

MAVA 127 is likely an original Lindenwald chair. It has 
been reupholstered in a period-design gold damask. 



8. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation 



one or two (1 or 2) small painted- 
grain or mahogany tables or stands 
with drawers, late classical style, 
1830-60 

to right of, or flanking bed 

Tables/Stands — Reference 7, 9 



TBA 



9. Object: 

Location: 
Documentation: 



three (3) chairs with horsehair 
upholstered seats, late classical 
style, 1830-40 

east wall and by fireplace 

Chairs — Reference 8 



TBA 



Accessory Furnishings 
10. Object: 



two pair (4) china candlesticks , 
c. 1840 



Location: mantel shelf and bedside table 
Documentation: Lighting Devices — Reference 6 



TBA 



11. Object 



Location: 
Documentation 



ceramic washbowl and pitcher and linen 
chamber towels , 1840-60 

washstand/commode 

period sources; Textiles, Reference 16 



TBA 



264 






12. Object: toiletry articles , 1840-60 TBA 
Location: shaving stand and washstand 

Documentation: Personal Accessories, References 7, 9 TBA 

Period or reproduction articles to be acquired. A hair 
brush and shaving soap from Philadelphia are parti- 
cularly referred to in Van Buren correspondence with 
Henry Gilpin in 1849 and 1856 

13. Object: hymnal and Bible , 1840-60 TBA 
Location: bedside table 

Documentation: Books/Documents, References 19, 26 

14. Object: writing accessories , 1840-60 TBA 
Location: secretary-bookcase 

Documentation: Personal Accessories References 6, 14 
Period or reproduction items to be acquired. 

15. Object: books , 1800-60 TBA 
Location: secretary-bookcase 

Documentation: Books/Documents 

Period books with literary, religious, and medical 
subjects to be acquired; about 14 feet of shelf space. 

16. Object: personal accessories and clothing , 97 and TBA 

1840-60 

Location: chest, table, chairs 

Documentation: Personal Accessories References 

Associated, period, or reproduction items to be 
acquired, including spectacles, watch, gloves, pocket 
handkerchiefs, umbrella, cane, riding crop, hat. 
MAVA 97, a leather hatbox traditionally associated 
with Van Buren, is appropriate. 

265 



17. Object: bed linens , blankets , and coverlet , TBA (R) 

1840-60 

Location: bed 

Documentation: Textiles References 9, 10, 11 

Reproduction bedding, including mattress, pillows, 
bolsters. 

18. Object: chintz slip cover , 1840-60 TBA (R) 

Location: easy chair 

Documentation: Textiles—Reference 13, 20; period 
sources (design and construction) 

Reproduction slip cover to be acquired. 

19. Object: wallpaper-covered fireboard , c. 1840 86 
Location: fireplace 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 209," "Finishes Study" 
MAVA 86 is original to this room. 

20. Object: unframed cabinet portrait (painting TBA 

or print) of Silas Wright 

Location: bedside table 

Documentation: Pictures/Portraits--Reference 23 

Wall Hangings 

21. Object: framed engraving of a tribute to 99 

Andrew Jackson, 1830-40 

Location: north wall over bed 
Documentation: Pictures/Portraits--Extant, #10 
MAVA 99 is an original Lindenwald furnishing. 



266 



22. Object: 



twc (2) framed silhouettes of Martin 
Van Buren, 1840^615 



Location: west wall and south side of east wall 

Documentation: Pictures/Portraits—Reference #23 

MAVA 177, lithograph of a silhouette, is appropriate. 
A second silhouette and frames to be acquired. 



177 and TBA 



23. Object: hanging rel igious texts, 1840-60 
Location: north side of east wall 
Documentation: Pictures/Portraits—Reference 25 



TBA 



24. Object: 



ogee mirror , late classical style, 
1830-40 



41 



Location: over mantel 

Documentation: Mirrors—Extant, #3 

MAVA 41 is possibly original to Lindenwald. 



Floor Coverings 
25. Object: 

Location: 



assorted small vari -colored rag rugs , 
over plain painted canvas floorcloth, 
1840-60 

floor 



Documentation: Textiles Reference 20; HSR, "Room 209" 
(no tack marks found) 

Reproduction rugs to be acquired. 



TBA (R) 



Window Treatment 



26. Object: 



Location 



four (4) reproduction valances, 
1840-60 

above windows on east and south sides 
of room 



TBA (R) 



267 



Documentation: Textiles, Reference 20; period sources 
(design and construction) 



27. Object: four (4) pairs of reproduction white TBA (R) 

muslin floor-length curtains , 
c. 1840-60 

Location: east and south windows 

Documentation: Textiles References 14, 15; period 
sources (design and construction) 



Wall Treatment 

28. Object: reproduction wallpaper (green chevron TBA (R) 

motif on white ground) with green and 
gray Greek key and foliate bord er, 
c. 1840 

Location: walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA W002 and border, found on fireboard, to be 
reproduced. 



ROOM 210— BEDROOM OF MARTIN VAN BUREN, JR. 

Introduction 

In 1841, the ex-President requested for "Martin's Bed Room" a "neat 
but cheap" wallpaper. Harriet Butler's daughter chose the paper 
which had "nothing exciting in the colors" and which to an "invalid" 
would be "rather quieting to the nerves." The original fireboard 
bearing this wallpaper is extant, but no other furnishings are 
specifically associated with this room. 

In 1849, Smith T. Van Buren refers to the room as "my brother's 
bed-room" in his correspondence with architect Richard Upjohn; thus 



268 



it is assumed that Martin Van Buren Jr. occupied the same room from 
1841 until 1853, when he left Lindenwald for Europe. 

It is not known if the room was occupied by anyone else after Martin 
Jr's death in 1855. It is recommended that the room be furnished 
and interpreted to reflect the life and personality of the ex- 
President's third son, as best it can be discerned from family cor- 
respondence. 

Visitors will pass through this room into room 209. 



Furniture 

1. Object: mahogany sleig h bed , late classical TBA 

style, 1S3IP40 or 92 

Location: north wall 

Documentation: Beds--Extant, #1 

A possibly original Lindenwald bed is in a private 
collection in the Kinderhook area. MAVA 92 (Extant #2), 
an originally painted grain sleigh bed may be used in 
lieu of mahogany bed. 

2. Object: wardrobe with mirror door, late 134 

classical style, 1830-40 

Location: east wall 

Documentation: Wardrobes--Extant, #5 
MAVA 134 is appropriate. 

3. Object: marble-topped che st of drawers , late TBA 

classical style, IF3(P5"0" 

Location: north wall 

Documentation: Chests--Extant, #11 



269 



Probably a Van Buren piece, this chest is in private 
hands in the Kinderhook area. 



4. Object: chest of drawers, late classical 28 

style, 1830-40 

Location: west wall over chest 

Documentation: Chest of Drawers/Commodes/Cupboards-- 
Extant, #3 

MAVA 28 is appropriate. 

5. Object: ogee mirror , late classical style, 36 

1830-70 

Location: north wall over chest 

Documentation: Mirrors — Extant, #2 

MAVA 36 is likely an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

6. Object: end table , late classical style, 39 

1830-40 

Location: south side of east wall 

Documentation: Tables/Stands--Extant, #24 

An original table is in the private hands in the 
Kinderhook area. 

Accessory Furnishings 

7. Object: two pair (4) china candles ticks , TBA 

c. 1840 

Location: chests 

Documentation: Lighting Devices Reference 6 

8. Object: personal ac cessories and clothing, TBA 

184~0-50 

Location: chest, bed 

270 



Documentation: Personal Accessories 

Period or reproduction items to be accuired. An 
umbrella and a "jewel" were repaired for Martin 
Van Buren Jr. in 1843 by L.S. Rex ford. 

9. Object: books, papers, and writing accessories, TBA 

1840-50 

Location: table 

Documentation: Books/Documents 

Period or reproduction items to be acquired. 

10. Object: bed linens, blankets, and coverlet, TBA (R) 

TMCP5~0 

Location: bed 

Documentation: Textiles References 9, 10, 11 

Reproduction bedding to be acquired. 

11. Object: wallpaper-covered fireboard , c. 1840 89 
Location: fireplace 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA 89 is the original fireboard for this room. 

Wall Hangi ngs 

12. Object: framed portr ait of Fanny Elssler, TBA 

1840-45 

Location: south wall over mantel 

Documentation: Pictures/Portraits — Reference 15 

A period "likeness," either a print or painting, 
to be acquired. 



271 



Wall Treatment 

13. Object: reproduction white floral on cream TBA (R) 

ground wal 1 paper and flocked geometric 
border , c. 1840 

Location: walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Finishes Study" 

MAVA W019, original wallpaper and border for this room, 
to be reproduced. 



ROOMS 005, 006, 007— BASEMENT SERVICE ROOMS 

Intro duction 

These three basement rooms, partially furnished as the servants' 
dining room, kitchen, and "wash-room" (laundry room), respectively, 
will serve to interpret the lives and duties of Lindenwald's various 
servants and their relationship to the functioning of the household 
during the historic period. 

Room functions have been identified through physical and documentary 
evidence and oral tradition. Original fixtures such as the cast iron 
cook stove, hand pumps, and sinks, should be restored and reinstalled 
Selected furnishings should also be used to suggest the dining, food 
preparation, and laundry functions. 

Visitors will either pass through these rooms or view them from the 
doorways. 



272 



ROOM 005— SERVANTS' DINING ROOM 

Furni ture 

1. Object: storage cabinet and shelves , federal/ TBA (R) 

classical style, 1800-50 

Location: northeast corner 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 005", p. 18 

Built-in cabinetry and shelf reconstructed by NAHPC. 

2. Object: large cupboard , federal /classical/ 20 

country style, 1800-50 

Location: southeast or east wall 

Documentation: Chests/Commodes/Cupboards--Extant #12 
MAVA 20 is probably an original Lindenwald furnishing. 

3. Object: drop-leaf extension table , late TBA 

classical country style, 1830-50 

Location: center of room 

Documentation: Tables—Extant, #23 

An original Lindenwald table is in private hands. 

4. Object: chair , federal /classical /country 1111 

style, 1800-50 

Location: by window 

Documentation: Chairs— Extant, #15 

MAVA 1111, a rocking chair associated with Van 
Buren, is appropriate. 

Accessory Furnishings 

5. Object: lighting devices (2), 1800-50 TBA (R) 
Location: table 

273 



Documentation: period sources 

A pair of reproduction tin, iron, or pewter candle- 
holders to be acquired. 



6. Object: ceramics, glassware, and utensils , 1040-1107 

1800-60 and TBA 

Location: table, cupboard, cabinet, shelves 

Documentation: Ceramics—Extant, #5, 6 

MAVA 1040-1107, set of blue and white "Amoy" pattern 
Davenport ironstone china, associated with Van Buren, 
is appropriate. 

Wall Treatment 

7. Object: reproduction multicolored floral TBA (R) 

bouquet, striped wallpaper , c. 1850 

Location: walls 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 005", "Finishes Study" 

Original wallpaper found in situ to be reproduced. 



ROOM 006--KITCHEN 

Furniture 

1. Object: cast iron cook stove and ovens , original 

Gothic style, ~c. 1850 in place 

Location: north wall 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 006", "Heating System" 

The original Moses Pond Union Range, manufactured in 
Boston, survives in situ . 

2. Object: sink , undetermined style, c. 1850 TBA 
Location: southwest corner 



274 



Documentation: HSR, "Room 006", "Plumbing System"; 

period sources (design and construction) 

Reconstructed by NAHPC. 



3. Object: storage cabinets and shelves , c. 1850 TBA 
Location: east wall 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 006" 
Built-in cabinets reconstructed. 

4. Object: drop-leaf work table , late federal/ 47 

country style, 1825-35 

Location: center of room 

Documentation: Tables—Extant, #12 

MAVA 47 is likely an original Lindenwald piece. 

5. Object: work or side table , late classical/ 129 

country style, c. 1840 

Location: east wall 

Documentation: Tables—Extant, #8 

MAVA 129 may be an original Lindenwald piece. 

Accessory Furnishings 

6. Object: assorted kitchenware , 1840-60 TBA 

Location: tables, cabinets, shelves, stove 

Documentation: Furniture/Furnishings References; 
HSR-arch. section; period sources 

MAVA 273 (an oyster gridiron) is an original Lindenwald 
furnishing. Other articles corresponding to the 
November 23, 1845, list would be appropriate and 
include a gridiron (272), Dutch oven, potato steamer, 
toaster; tea, fish, ham, and soup kettles; stew and 
frying pans; firecarrier; trivet; sugar nippers. A 



275 



coal scuttle, axe, hatchet, meat saw, and steelyards 
were also listed. 

Ceramics, glassware, and utensils based on archeo- 
logical collections would also be appropriate. 



ROOM 007--WASHR00M (LAUNDRY ROOM) 
Furniture 

1. Object: lead-lined sink , c. 1850 and hand pump 
Location: southwest corner 

Documentation: HSR, "Room 007", "Plumbing System" 

The sink and hand pump have both survived and have 
been reconstructed and reinstalled. 

Accessory Furnishings 

2. Object: two (2) folding wooden drying racks , 133 

1800-50 1166 

Location: by south window 

Documentation: Housekeeping Accessories, Extant #6, 7 

MAVA 133 and 1166 are probably original Lindenwald 
furnishings. 



3. Object: two (2) sets of smoothing irons and TBA 

stands , 1840-50 

Location: by fireplace 

Documentation: Furnishings References #21 
(November 23, 1845) 



4. Object: assorted washtubs and laundry 1162 

accessories , 1840-60 1163 

Location: scattered 

Documentation: Housekeeping Accessories, Extant #5 
MAVA 1162 and 1163 may be original Lindenwald furnishings. 

276 



5. Object: assorted linens and clothing (repro- TBA (R) 

duction), 1840-60 

Location: drying racks, tables 

Documentation: Textiles References 

ROOMS 102/103 and 107/108— CLOSETS 
No furnishings. 

ROOM 110— STAIRWAY 

Same floor covering as room 105. 

ROOMS 113/117— TOWER STAIR HALL 
No furnishings. 

ROOM 120— HALLWAY, 121— PRIVY, and 122— CLOSET 
No furnishings. 

ROOM 123— BEDROOM 

No furnishings unless function and/or occupant of the room can be 
determined. 

ROOMS 202/203/204— CLOSETS and 211— PASSAGE 
No furnishings. 



277 



FLOOR PLANS AND ELEVATIONS 



279 




BEDROOM 

Room 101 



280 



CL L 



^1 



/ 



EJ 



\ 




n 



1 1 2 3 4 5 



<3 



BEDROOM 

Room 101 



281 




SITTING ROOM 

Room 104 



282 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 



A 



SITTING ROOM 

Room 104 



283 




o 



\ / 



rj 



n 



n 



nv-r 



\r 



o 



Xo 



-265- 




DRAWING ROOM 

Room 106 



286 




12 3 4 5 



fe> 



DRAWING ROOM 

Room 106 



287 




DINING ROOM 

Room 109 



288 



/ 



J 




s 



77=J 



C 



if 



h 



12 3 4 5 

i. I — ... -L ,_ _ _. _____ ____ 



fe> 



DINING ROOM 

Room 109 



289 




LIBRARY 

Room 1 1 1 



290 



t 1 



, J- 



V 



m gg 




1 



o 




r 



V^ 



r 



j 



-n 



12 3 4 5 

■ - -, ■- 1 _ 



LIBRARY 

Room 1 1 1 



291 




BATHROOM; 
WATER CLOSET; HALL 

Rooms 114/115/116 



292 



u 



i_r 



"i 



P 



i 



O 




df? 



12 3 4 5 

1 



BATHROOM; WATER CLOSET; HALL 

Rooms 114/115/116 



293 




BEDROOM 

Room 205 



294 



,1 



5 



U 




n 



1 



^^ 



r^ ^ 



f 




o 



tr 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 



BEDROOM 

Room 205 



295 




MARTIN VAN BUREN'S BEDROOM 

Room 209 



298 



/ 



E 



\ 




T-r 



L 



^ 



d 



\ 



5=? 






u 



n 



3 



D c=; 



12 3 4 5 



w 



MARTIN VAN BUREN'S BEDROOM 

Room 209 



299 




MARTIN VAN BUREN, JR.'S BEDROOM 

Room 210 



300 



tz 



u 



tJ 



c 



(I 



TV 



12 3 4 5 

I L I 



B> 



MARTIN VAN BUREN, JR.'S BEDROOM 

Room 210 



301 




SERVANT'S DINING ROOM 

Room 005 



302 





n 



12 3 4 5 

- .. . ■ — . .— .-.i J . 



<3 



SERVANT'S DINING ROOM 

Room 005 



303 




KITCHEN 

Room 006 



304 



J L 



t- * 



rt 



i 



^ r 1 




12 3 4 5 



W 



KITCHEN 

Room 006 



305 




WASHROOM 

Room 007 



3116, 



( 



y 



"Lj- 



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s_r 




*-n 



12 3 4 5 

i I i 



WASHROOM 

Room 007 



307 



INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE 

AND 

PROTECTION RECOMMENDATIONS 

Diana R. Pardue, Staff Curator 

Curatorial Services Branch 

Preservation Assistance Division, WASO 



This section contains instructions on maintaining a safe environment 
for the museum objects in Lindenwald, performing necessary collection 
maintenance, and maintaining adequate security. See p. 303 for 
potential sources of assistance in implementing this section. 

A. THE ENVIRONMENT 

Exhibiting the museum objects in a safe, stable environment will re- 
duce the rate of deterioration to a minimum, prolong the life of an 
object and minimize conservation treatment. Prevention is always 
better than treatment. Measuring environmental conditions over a 
period of time (at least one year) is essential when determining how 
a building can be adapted to create a better environment for museum 
objects. These monitoring records provide an environmental baseline 
from which recommendations can be made for improvement. This envir- 
onmental monitoring program should become a part of an ongoing 
improvement program, assessing the effectiveness of various environ- 
mental control measures (dehumidifiers, heating, light filters) and 
revealing where and how additional controls may be needed until the 
optimum conditions are achieved. Monitoring also ensures that the 
optimum conditions are actually being maintained. 

1. Temperature/Humidity 

The Historic Structure Report for Lindenwald contains detailed infor- 
mation on the climate control system that will probably be used in 
this house. When using this system, emphasis should be placed on 
minimizing moisture migration through the walls and condensation on 



308 



the windows and to avoid frequent and rapid fluctuations in relative 
humidity and temperature. The HSR suggests regulating relative humi- 
dity by using a humidistat; using the interior/exterior shutters to 
minimize fluctuations of temperature and relative humidity can also 
be effective. 

The curatorial staff has been using hygrothermographs to record tem- 
perature and relative humidity levels in several rooms in the house. 
Temperatures range from a high of 32 C (90 F) in August to a low of 
10 C (50 F) in January. Relative humidity readings ranged from a 
high of 85% in June to a low of 28% in January. Rapid changes in 
relative humidity and temperature are the most damaging to objects 
because they cause physical stress and chemical deterioration of 
objects. Wide, slow variations over the period of a year are prefer- 
able. Ideally, the relative humidity should be in the range of 35% 
and 65%. The change of relative humidity levels from winter to 
summer should not exceed ±3% RH per month. Extremes in temperature 
that could result in objects freezing or softening should be avoided. 
Above 21°C, good ventilation is necessary to minimize pockets of 
stagnant humid air. 

Recording hygrothermographs should be maintained in each exhibit room 
on a regular, long-term basis. A log of daily observations should 
also be kept, recording conditions (such as rain, snow, large group 
of visitors, breakdown in climate control equipment) affecting the 
climate and that will make it easier to interpret the temperature and 
relative humidity records. The records and log should be examined on 
a monthly basis to determine temperature and relative humidity highs, 
lows, and means, the frequency and degree of fluctuations, and if the 
existing climate is acceptable. This information can be used to 
identify potential problem areas and justify any repairs to climate 
control equipment. 



309 



Hygrothermographs and psychrometers need to be calibrated every three 
months to sustain accuracy. Calibration is done using a sling psy- 
chrometer to compare readings and then adjusting the hygrothermograph 
or psychrometer so that their readings match the reading of the sling 
psychrometer. Hygrothermograph charts and ink can be obtained from 
the Curatorial Services Branch, WASO. 

2. Light 

Light has the potential to be the most damaging agent to sensitive 
organic materials, causing a chemical breakdown of molecular bonds in 
materials which results in embrittlement. It also fades many pig- 
ments and dyes. The most reasonable solution is to achieve minimum 
exposure. There are recommended levels of light that should not be 
exceeded if deterioration is to be reduced. 

The maximum intensity of light should not exceed 150 lux. Objects 
sensitive to light (for example, textiles, wallpapers, prints, and 
drawings) should not be exhibited in light over 50 lux. The propor- 
tion of ultraviolet light to the total light should not exceed 75uW/ 
lumen (microwatts per lumen). This is important because ultraviolet 
light is the most chemically damaging segment of the light spectrum. 

Light filters are on some of the windows and shutters are used to 
lower visible sunlight levels. Existing light levels taken on a 
sunny day in September are: 

Location Visible Light Ultraviolet Light 

Entrance Hall (119) 929 lux 150 microwatts/lumen 

Breakfast Room (109) 

sideboard 354 lux 75 microwatts/lumen 

Library (111) table 375 lux 125 microwatts/1 uinen 

rocking chair 1940 lux 100 microwatts/lumen 

bookcase 116.4 lux 100 microwatts/lumen 



310 



Bathroom (114) 805 lux 400 microwatts/lumen 

Bedroom (201) east 277 lux 100 microwatts/lumen 

north 466 lux 100 microwatts/lumen 

Bedroom (209) south 27600 lux 100 microwatts/lumen 

west 537 lux 100 microwatts/lumen 

Window shades, curtains, and interior shutters should be used to block 
the direct sunlight from entering the rooms containing furnishings. 
The curator should develop a schedule of raising and lowering the 
shades (or opening and closing shutters) as visitors are taken through 
the house to limit the amount of sunlight in the rooms. The ultra- 
violet filters should be replaced or added so that the ultraviolet 
light levels are reduced to less than 75 microwatts/lumen. 

Light readings (both lux and ultraviolet) need to be taken by the 
staff on a yearly basis to see if the light levels are within the 
recommended range. These readings can be taken with a lux light 
meter and an ultraviolet light monitor. These instruments can be 
loaned to the staff by the Regional Curator or the Curatorial Ser- 
vices Branch, Preservation Assistance Division, WAS0. 

Lighting fixtures in these rooms should be used only when necessary, 
and turned off when visitors are not present. 

3. Dust and Air Pollution 

Dust particles are a microscopic abrasive that can wear away surface 
detail; they also act as a catalyst promoting damage caused by pol- 
lutants. This occurs when dust attracts moisture and gaseous pollut- 
ants, such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide (found in nearly 
all ambient air) and forms acidic solutions that attack most materi- 
als. There are no acceptable levels of pollution and dust and they 
should be eliminated as far as practically possible. 



311 



Good housekeeping should keep dust off objects. Low relative humi- 
dity will prevent the destructive reaction that results in acidic 
solutions. Door mats should be placed at the entrance of the house 
to pick up dirt from people's shoes. Weather stripping will prevent 
additional dust from entering through doors and windows. Any vents 
from the climate control system should be cleaned regularly so that 
dust is not blown into the rooms. If windows are opened, screens 
should be used. 

No smoking should be allowed in the house. Ashes from smoking add to 
the dust already present in the rooms; the tars and gases caused by 
smoking is a type of air pollution which can harm objects. 

Should additional measures be necessary to control dust, source in- 
formation will be provided on high efficiency air purifiers. This 
device will remove particulate pollutants and dust from the air and, 
when used with optional activated charcoal filters, will remove the 
reactive gaseous pollutants. 

4. Insects/Rodents 

Insects and rodents can cause extensive damage to organic materials. 
Dermestid beetles, powder-post beetles, and silverfish are a few of 
the pests that actively devour wool, wood, and cellulose materials. 
Rodents can destroy paper and wood objects in the process of nest 
building. Evidence of insects and rodents was apparent in the house. 

The besc ways to prevent an infestation is to keep the rooms clean 
and keep out the source of attraction (food, water, and nesting 
materials). Food and drinks should not be allowed in the Lindenwald 
since they tend to attract these pests. Cleaning the area on a regu- 
lar basis, using a housekeeping schedule, is also important because 
cleaning should remove most food and nesting sources. Any trash cans 



312 



in the house should be emptied at the end of each day so that the 
trash does not sit in the rooms over night when insects and rodents 
are most likely to be around. If windows are opened, screens should 
be used to minimize insects coming in the house from outside. 

A monitoring program, using insect and rodent traps, should be con- 
ducted in the rooms to determine if insects and rodents are present, 
what types, their quantities, and possible entry points. Sticky 
traps and rodent spring traps can be used. These traps should be 
inspected on a weekly basis. The captured insects should be identi- 
fied so as to determine whether they are hazardous to the collection 
and what methods should be taken to eliminate the pests. The Regional 
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Coordinator can assist the park with 
establishing a monitoring program, interpreting the results, and pre- 
scribing pesticides if necessary. 

If an infestation should occur, the Regional Curator and the Regional 
IPM Coordinator should be contacted immediately. Any pesticide will 
have to receive approval through the Regional IPM Coordinator before 
use. Conserve Gram 3/10 describes what actions should be taken 
when an insect infestation occurs. 

5. Security 

Protection of museum objects from fire, theft, vandalism, and general 
human abuse is also crucial to achieving long-term preservation. The 
Historic Structure Report for Lindenwald contains a section on fire 
and intrusion protection. It contains detailed recommendations for 
fire detection systems, fire detection sensors (and where they should 
be located), use of fire extinguishers and water for suppression, and 
an intrusion detection and alarm system. These recommendations 
should be used in determining the types of systems to be installed. 
The curator and regional architectural staff should be consulted to 
insure that whatever systems are installed will result in minimal 
damage to the historic fabric of the house and the museum objects. 

313 



The park should invite the responsible fire department to visit and 
inspect the house, to become aware of special problems which should 
be considered regarding the furnishings and the historic structure. 
This visit should take place once a year. 

An emergency action plan should be prepared for implementation in the 
event of natural disasters (earthquakes, flooding, fire) and other 
destructive threats. It should delineate responsibilities of park 
employees to minimize danger to life and property. The staff must be 
made aware in advance of actions designed to save the more valuable 
museum objects. A plan for the safe evacuation of visitors and staff 
must be posted. 

Fire drills held on a regular basis are one of the best ways to en- 
sure the proper response to an emergency. Thinking out responses 
ahead of time makes dealing with the real emergency much easier. 

Good housekeeping can be the most important single factor in the pre- 
vention of fire. No smoking should be allowed in Lindenwald. 

The security system should be tested periodically. Local authorities 
should be made aware of the existence and value of the furnishings, 
as well as whom to notify in an after-hour's emergency. Walk-through 
examinations and visual inventories by the park staff should occur 
daily. Missing or damaged objects should be reported immediately to 
the Superintendent, and Incident Reports completed. 

Park employees must insist that visitors do not touch the exhibited 

objects. Only park employees with curatorial duties should handle 

the museum objects and then as little as possible, and only with 

clean hands. Metal objects should not be handled without clean cot- 
ton gloves. 



314 



Objects can be protected from unnecessary handling or theft by plac- 
ing them out of reach of visitors and by placing exhibit barriers at 
least an arm's length away from the exhibit objects. Reproduction 
objects can be used in place of historic objects if proper protection 
cannot be provided and displayed objects are necessary. However, re- 
production objects should not be regarded as expendable to the extent 
that they are given absolutely no protection or care. 

The catalog records system should be used as an additional security 
device. The records should be up to date and include object loca- 
tions and good physical descriptions. Location files, part of the 
records system, should be established. The revised Mu seum Handbook , 
Part II, page 4-4, contains more details on setting up this system. 
These cards should be kept in the house and organized by room, type 
of object (chair, table, painting, etc.), and numerical sequence by 
catalog number. 

Photographs showing object placement should be available for each ex- 
hibit room. One or more photographs can be taken of each exhibit, 
showing object placement and clear pictures of the objects. These 
photographs can be kept on Print File Cards (Form 10-30). 

6. Specific Conservation Considerations 

a. Objects should never be placed directly next to or on top of 
the air vents; direct heat can dry out wood, textiles, leather and 
paper objects. Relocating objects is the best solution; occasionally 
the vent can be closed. Any relocation of objects should be reflec- 
ted in the Historic Furnishings Report. 

b. When placing objects such as lamps, books, and other small ob- 
jects on other materials (textiles, finished wood surfaces, paper, or 
leather), protective barriers should be placed between the objects to 



315 



prevent the transfer of corrosion or chemicals, and to evenly dis- 
tribute weight. Suitable protective barriers are: acid-free card- 
board; museum mat board (100% rag); or polyethylene foam. 

c. Pages of open books should be turned weekly to avoid excess 
damage to any two pages or to the spine of the book. 

d. Objects that are to be hung on the wall or furniture (such as 
textiles) should be hung on padded pegs or other padding. Polyethy- 
lene foam or cotton batting, covered with cotton muslin, forms good 
padding. This padding should be designed to hold the shape of the 
object and, where possible, the object should be alternated with like 
objects for display. Only yery strong materials in good condition 
can bear the strain of hanging. 

e. All framed paper materials (such as prints and photographs) 
should be matted with 100% rag board and framed according to Conserve 
Gram 13/1. Photographs should be matted with 100% rag board that 
has not been buffered. 

f. Rugs or other carpeting should not be placed directly on the 
floor. Cotton sheeting should be used as a barrier between the rug 
and the floor. 

g. Some of the exhibit objects may need conservation treatment. 
Conservation condition surveys should be done by the appropriate 
conservators to determine which objects need conservation treatment. 
The staff should then use the survey recommendations to develop a 
conservation schedule. 

h. Objects should never be stored in drawers, cabinets, and clos- 

ets in the exhibit or elsewhere in the house; instead they should be 
stored correctly in the park's museum storage area when not on 
exhibit. 



316 



1. Any plants on display should be carefully maintained so that 
water, dirt, and bits of the plant itself (dead leaves, etc.) do not 
get on the furnishings. Protective barriers (see b.) must be placed 
between the plant's pot base and the table top. Plants are a prime 
source for insect infestations and must be inspected regularly. If 
insects are noticed on the plants, the plants must be removed from 
the exhibit area immediately. If possible, reproduction plants (silk, 
etc.) should be used. 

B. COLLECTION MAINTENANCE AND HOUSEKEEPING SCHEDULE 

The Superintendent is ultimately responsible for the collection; all 
collection maintenance, as well as cleaning materials, must be ap- 
proved by the Superintendent who should seek the advice of the Cura- 
tor and Regional Curator. The museum technician should perform the 
collection maintenance and should receive the appropriate curatorial 
training. 

General Rules for Handling Objects 

1. Be aware that all objects should be treated respectfully. 
Haste makes for bumped, scratched, and broken objects; always sched- 
ule enough time to complete the task. Be thorough, but remember that 
over cleaning may be as harmful as no cleaning. Be gentle rather 
than enthusiastic. 

2. Fingerprints leave deposits of dust, water, and oils where 
pockets of corrosion develop on metal objects. Always wear clean 
white gloves when handling metal objects (silver, brass, copper, 
steel, iron) and leather objects. When the gloves become soiled, 
rinse them in Ivory--do not use any bleach. Always have clean, dry 
hands when handling other types of materials. 



317 



3. When moving any object, support that piece. Carry only items 
that can rest securely in both hands, and carry only one thing at a 
time. Never lift anything by its handle, spout, ears, rim, or any 
other protruding part. Support it from below at the base and at the 
side. Moving large pieces of furniture requires two people so that 
mishandling by tugging, pulling, and sliding is avoided. When sev- 
eral objects are moved that are small enough to fit in a container 
(box, basket), pad each object (along with the container). Do not 
stack objects on top of each other. Do not allow parts of objects to 
protrude from the container while in transport. The loaded container 
must be light enough to be carried easily. 

4. Moving objects displayed above fireplaces, on high shelves, or 
over tables requires two people, using a ladder. One person should 
ascend the ladder, and using both hands, carefully transfer the ob- 
ject to the person on the ground. Lids or any removable parts should 
be firmly affixed or removed before moving. 

5. Carry chairs by their seat rails; large upholstered chairs 
should be carried by two people. In most cases, tables should be 
supported by the skirt. 

6. Plan ahead. Know where you are taking an object, what obsta- 
cles are on the way, and have the pathway cleared and padded if nec- 
essary. 

7. If something breaks, report it to the Superintendent. Save 
all fragments and keep them together. 

G eneral Recommendations for Developing A Housekeeping Program 

1. A suggested housekeeping schedule is included at the end of 
this section as well as recommendations on how to dust and clean dif- 



318 



ferent types of materials. This information should be useful to the 
curatorial staff as a beginning point, from which a more specific 
housekeeping program can be developed. A suggested Housekeeping 
Program outline and Analysis of Space Checklist are on pages 331-334; 
these materials can be used by the park staff to develop the house- 
keeping program for the house. This program should take into consi- 
deration local object needs and cleaning frequencies as well as any 
seasonal variations that occur. Information needs to be gathered over 
the period of a year (to include the seasonal variations) as to the 
types and quantities of materials in the furnished rooms, what objects 
need dusting/cleaning, and how often. This information can then be 
used to determine how many hours are needed for specific housekeeping 
tasks, what supplies and equipment are needed on a yearly basis, and 
the costs. 

One method of accomplishing this task is to use an inspection sched- 
ule and log book. The type of information to record would include 
any particular observations concerning dust, dirt, or insect/rodent 
infestations, time of day, the date, and any extenuating circum- 
stances such as weather, larger than normal visitation or construc- 
tion in the area. 

2. Discretion and sensitivity must be used in creating and fol- 
lowing any housekeeping program. Dusting and cleaning objects should 
be based on the need and the condition of the object. The frequency 
of dusting and cleaning can vary from room to room within the build- 
ing. Factors to consider when determining frequency are the location 
of the object in the house and within the room (is it close to an 
exterior door?), the seasons of the year, and level of visitation. 
Judgment on frequency of dusting/cleaning should rest with the cura- 
torial staff working with the Regional Curator. 



319 



3. When dusting, the dust should be removed--not just pushed 
around. When some objects are dusted with a dry cloth or artist's 
brush, use a vacuum cleaner to pick up the dust that is removed from 
the object into the air. Vacuuming is the best method of dusting, 
but a variety of suctions should be used, depending on the stability 
and age of the object or surface. Some vacuum cleaners are made so 
that their suction can be lowered. A voltage regulator can also be 
used to lower the suction. Portable hand vacuums are useful because 
they have a lower suction than regular vacuum cleaners. A plastic 
mesh screen should also be used on fragile surfaces to relieve 
strain. Metal, glass, and ceramic objects on mantels, high shelves, 
or tables should be dusted in an area removed from the exhibit area. 
When clean, they can be returned to their exhibit location. Be very 
careful when handling these object s--moving can require two people. 

4. During seasons with low visitation levels, the daily, weekly, 
and monthly tasks can be done with less frequency. Semi-annual tasks 
should be done in the early spring and at the beginning of winter. 
Annual and biennial tasks should be done during winter months. 

SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS 

C eramics and Glass 

Once a year, ceramic and glass objects should be examined to see if 
additional cleaning is needed. Clean these objects according to the 
directions in Conserve Gram 8/2. Do not immerse unglazed portions 
of earthenware in liquid. Instead, wipe these sections with a damp 
cloth or artist's brush. 

Textiles 

1. Vacuuming: Fibers should be tested initially for stability. 
Turn the suction down to the lowest level. Carefully vacuum a small 



320 



unnoticeable section of the textile, holding a plastic mesh screen 
over the textile to eliminate strain. Then check the area vacuumed 
for loose fiber ends. If none are visible, continue vacuuming the 
textile using the brush attachment. Use the plastic mesh screen on 
all fragile areas to eliminate strain. 

Vacuum upholstered furniture using the upholstery attachment and a 
plastic mesh screen. Place the screen against the upholstery and 
vacuum over it. Work dust out of corners, pleats, and tufts with a 
clean brush attachment. 

2. Cleaning: Reproduction textiles can be dry-cleaned by a de- 
pendable dry cleaner, once a year or as needed. Historic textiles 
should be cleaned by a professional textile conservator. If there is 
a question as to whether a textile can be cleaned by the curatorial 
staff, consult with the Regional Curator or the Textile Conservator 
in the Division of Conservation. 

3. Rugs: Rugs used for visitor access or new rugs can be vacu- 
umed and cleaned more frequently than historic rugs. When vacuuming 
historic rugs which are well-worn, the plastic mesh screen should be 
used as well as a low suction to relieve strain. 

Metals 

1. Brass, copper, and silver objects should be polished and lac- 
quered to avoid polishing every year. A coat of lacquer should last 
a long time (around 10 years); inspect objects yearly for tarnished 
spots, indicating that the lacquer needs replacing. Contact the 
Regional Curator for assistance with this project. 



321 



2. Iron objects can develop rust and corrosion. If this occurs, 
the room environment should be monitored (using a hygrothermograph) 
to see if the humidity is too high. Adjustments should be made to 
lower the humidity to acceptable levels, possibly by using dehumidi- 
fiers or activated silica gel. 

3. Excessively dirty metal objects can be washed. Do not wash 
objects with sections made of other materials, such as bone or wood. 
If dusting is done regularly, washing should not be necessary. Wash- 
ing should never occur on a regular basis. 

Washing Procedure: Wash in warm water and non-ionic detergent; rinse 
in clear water and dry completely with a soft clean cloth. 

4. Pewter should be polished only when absolutely necessary; a 
light coat of microcrystalline wax is usually sufficient. Wash only 
if the object is wery dirty; this dirt buildup should not occur if 
the objects are dusted regularly. Do not wash on a scheduled basis. 

Procedure for washing: Wash in denatured alcohol, rinse well in dis- 
tilled water and dry with a clean cloth. 

Floors 

Monthly cleaning: The wood floor can be damp mopped and buffed. 
Buffing removes lightly imbedded dirt and restores the waxy gloss. 
When dirt has been moderately ground into the wax, buffing should 
follow damp mopping. 

Cleaning procedure for damp mopping: 

Equipment: Clean string mop, mop bucket, and wringer. 



322 



Procedure: Fill bucket half full with cold water. Vacuum thoroughly 
before mopping. Wet mop in cold water and wring it nearly dry. Mop 
floor in long continuous side-to-side strokes. Reverse direction 
eyery fourth stroke. Rinse and wring mop frequently. Change water 
as soon as it gets dirty. 

Avoid slapping strands of mop against furniture, rugs, or baseboards. 
When finished, wash mop, bucket, and wringer. 

Cleaning procedure for buffing: 

Equipment: Electric floor polisher, clean buffing brushes, or pads. 

Procedure: Vacuum floor thoroughly first. Attach buffer to floor 
polisher head. Guide polisher from side to side, in parallel paths, 
until entire floor is buffed. Avoid hitting furnishings or base- 
boards with polishing machine. Clean pads or brushes when finished. 

For more detailed information on caring for floors, see the Manual 
for Museums , pp. 222-231. 

Windows 

Semi-annual Cleaning: The windows should be washed inside and out. 
No liquid should run onto the wooden framework. Care must be taken 
to not damage any ultraviolet filtering materials that are on the 
interior of the glass. 



323 



Cleaning Procedure: 
Equipment: 

Procedure: 



Two people, ladder, chamois, pail, sponge, 
cleaning solution (Conserve Gram 8/2). 

Dust window panes and surrounding framework. 
Dampen sponge in cleaning solution and use 
overlapping strokes to wash each pane. Re- 
move dirty water from the panel with chamois 
Change water when it becomes dirty. 



For more detailed information on cleaning windows, see M anual for Mu- 
seums, pp. 238-239. 



324 



HOUSEKEEPING SCHEDULE 

1. Vacuum floors and baseboards. 

2. Damp wipe surfaces extensively handled by visitors (room bar- 
riers, entrance and exit door handles). 

Weekly 

1. Dust wood furniture with a clean cotton cloth sprayed with 
Endust. Dust all parts of the piece including the out-of-the-way 
places. Use a soft cotton swab if necessary (Con serve Gram 7/8). 

2. Dust ceramic, glass, paper, and other small objects on open 
display, using a clean dry cotton cloth. Use an artist's brush on 
intricately decorated objects and art objects. 

3. Vacuum leather materials, baskets, and books, using a gentle 
suction and a plastic screen held securely against the objects to 
protect them from the suction. Wear clean cotton gloves. Vacuum, 
using a plastic mesh screen, only when necessary. 

4. Dust metal objects, using a clean, dry cotton cloth. Always 
wear clean cotton gloves. 

5. Clean soiled gloves in Ivory; rinse and dry. 

6. Vacuum hearths, mantels, and fireplaces. 

7. Check for evidence of insects and rodents (see Manual for Mu - 
seums , pp. 71-77, and Cons erve Gram 3/10). Record findings and 
renew traps as needed. 

8. Water plants (if necessary). Inspect carefully for insect 
infestations. 



325 



Month ly 

1. Vacuum window frames, shades, curtains, and lighting fixtures. 

2. Clean any plexiglas, using a non-static cleanser and a clean, 
dry cotton cloth. 

3. Vacuum upholstery on historic furniture, using gentle suction 
and a cl ean upholstery attachment. Fragile areas should be vacuumed 
through a plastic mesh screen to decrease strain. Always vacuum in 
the direction of the nap if the material has a nap. 

4. Vacuum historic carpets and rugs, using the upholstery attach- 
ment in the direction of the nap and a plastic screen where necessary. 

5. Dust picture frames (including the tops), using a lens brush; 
with the carved gilt frames, blow off dust using a small ear syringe 
(do not touch the frame). 

6. Glass on pictures may be damp wiped (if needed), using a sponge 
dipped in glass cleaner (Conserve Gram 8/2) and squeezed almost dry. 
Do not let the moisture get on the frame or under the glass. 

7. Refold folded textiles along different lines to reduce stress. 

8. Spot clean walls with a clean, water-damp cloth, and dry. 

9. Vacuum tops of doors, bookcases, and other ledges in reach of 
the floor. 

10. Examine furnishings to determine if any active deterioration 
is occurring and if specialized conservation treatment is needed. 

11. Calibrate the hygrothermographs using a sling or aspirated 
psychrometer. 



326 



Semi-Annual 

1. Vacuum ceiling, tops of wardrobes, and other high wall areas 
requiring ladders. 

2. Wash and dry windows. 

3. Vacuum vents from the heating system. 

Annual 

1. Inspect metal objects for corrosion, rust, or tarnish; treat 
if necessary. 

2. Inspect ceramic and glass objects to determine if washing is 
necessary (C onserve Gram 8/2). 

3. Clean woodwork by wiping with a clean, damp cloth and dry im- 
mediately. 

4. Take light readings (both visible and ultraviolet) of objects 
on exhibit to see if light is within the acceptable range. 

5. Dry clean curtains if necessary. 

Bienn ial 

1. Clean and wax finished wood furniture ( Conserve Gram s 7/2. 
7/3). 

2. Damp wipe and dry painted wood and raw wood objects, using a 
clean cloth with water (Co nserve Gram 7/2). 

3. Clean exposed wood floors by stripping, waxing, and buffing 
( Conserve Gram 7/4). 



327 



MAINTENANCE RECOMMENDATIONS: OUTLINE FOR A HOUSEKEEPING PROGRAM; 
ANALYSIS OF SPACE; AND SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE 

Use the following outline as a way of organizing and presenting the 
information for a housekeeping program for your area. This is meant 
to be a guide only. While most of the items in the outline should be 
pertinent to eyery area, modify the outline in order to produce a 
format that will work best for the specific situation at hand. 

Housekeeping Program 

I. Introduction 

A. Purpose and Scope of Interpretive Program 

B. Collection History 

C. Staffing Responsibilities (who cleans, who supervises, 

training needs, etc.) 



1 1 . Analysis of Exhibit Area 

A. Description of Area (exhibit cases, open exhibits, 

furnished room) 

B. Environmental Impacts 

C. Types of Materials, Quantity of Each 

D. Desired Level of Cleaning 



III. Procedures 

A. Cleaning 

1. Methods and Materials 

2. Frequencies (daily, weekly, etc.) 

B. Environmental Monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, 

dust/pollution, light) 

1. Methods and Equipment 

2. Frequencies (daily, weekly, etc.) 



IV. Supplies and Equipment (acceptable materials, sources, and 
quantities) 



V. Personnel (position, grade, series, total work hours for 
each task for one year) 



328 



MAINTENANCE RECOMMENDATIONS: OUTLINE FOR A HOUSEKEEPING PROGRAM; 
ANALYSIS OF SPACE; AND SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE 

Use the following outline as a way of organizing and presenting the 
information for a housekeeping program for your area. This is meant 
to be a guide only. While most of the items in the outline should be 
pertinent to ewery area, feel free to modify or improvise in order to 
produce a format that will work better for the specific situation you 
are working on. 

Housekeeping Program 

I. Introduction 

A. Purpose and Scope of Interpretive Program 

B. Collection History 

C. Staffing Responsibilities (who cleans, who supervises, 

training needs, etc. ) 



1 1 . An alysis of Exhibit Area 

A. Description of Area (exhibit cases, open exhibits, 

furnished room) 

B. Environmental Impacts 

C. Types of Materials, Quantity of Each 

D. Desired Level of Cleaning 



III. Procedures 

A. Cleaning 

1. Methods and Materials 

2. Frequencies (daily, weekly, etc.) 

B. Environmental Monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, 

dust/pollution, light) 

1. Methods and Equipment 

2. Frequencies (daily, weekly, etc.) 

IV. Su pplies and Equipment (acceptable materials, sources, and 
quantities) 



V. P ersonne l (position, grade, series, total work hours for 
each task for one year) 



329 



Room: Park 

Building: Name: 

Date 

ANALYSIS OF SPACE (by room) 
Cur atorial Housekeeping 



1. Floor Area (sq. ft. ) 
Wall Area (sq. ft.) " 



2. Number of Windows 

Type of Window Treatment (shades, curtains, shutters, etc.) 



3. Wall Surfaces (describe material) 



4. Floor and Stair Surfaces (describe material covering) 



5. Textiles (describe and quantify) 



6. Wooden Objects (describe and quantify) 



7. Stone and Ceramic Objects (describe and quantify) 



8. Metal Objects (describe and quantify) 



9. Skin Products (describe and quantify) 



10. Feathers, Ivory, other organics (describe and quantify) 



11. Plastics, other modern, inorganic materials (describe and 
quantify) 



330 



12. Paper Materials (describe and quantify) 



13. Glass Surfaces and Objects (describe and quantify) 



14. Paintings (describe and quantify) 



15. Type of Lighting (natural and mechanical, quantify) 



16. Air Handling Systems (describe type, quantity, filters, and 
controls) 



17. Security/Fire Systems (describe type and quantity of each) 



18. Temperature Readings (location, date, time, weather conditions) 



19. Relative Humidity Readings (location, date, time, weather 
conditions) 



20. Visible Light Readings (location, date, time, weather conditions) 



21. Ultraviolet Light Readings (location, date, time, weather 
conditions) 



22. Housekeeping Supplies and Equipment, currently in use (describe 
and quantify where appropriate) 



331 



23. Staff Time for Housekeeping (position, grades, work years) 



24. Additional Remarks 



SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE 

Persons responsible for the care and protection of museum objects 
should be familiar with Ralph Lewis' Manual for Museums (National 
Park Service, Government Printing Office, 1976), the Conserve Gram 
series, and the National Park Service Museum Handbook . Sections in 
the Manual for Museums that are particularly useful for implementing 
these recommendations are Chapter 4, "Caring for a Collection," pp. 
61-112; Chapter 11, "Housekeeping," pp. 204-259; and Chapter 12, 
"Protection," pp. 260-298. 

Other useful publications : 

Committee on Libraries, Museums, and Historic Buildings. Protection 
of Museums and Museum Collections 1980 . NFPA 911, Boston: 
National Fire Protection Association, Inc., 1980, one of the 
best sources on fire protection and prevention, specifically 
written for museums. 

Edwards, Stephen R. , Bruce M. Bell, and Mary Elizabeth King. Pest 
Control In Museums: A Status Report . Lawrence, Kansas: Asso- 
ciation of Systematic Collections, 1980, a good general guide 
to pesticides, their use in museums, and common insect pests. 

Sandwith, Hermione, and Sheila Stainton, comp. The National Trust 
Manual of Housekeeping . London: Allen Lane, Ltd., in assoc- 
iation with the N.T., 1984. 

Thomson, Garry. T he Museum Environment . London: Butterworths, 1978. 
An excellent source of information on light, humidity, and air 
pollution. 

Thompson, John, ed. Manual of Curatorship . London: Butterworths, 
1984. A general guide to museum practice. 



332 



Us eful audiovisual programs are : 

"Housekeeping Techniques for the Historic House," "Museum Fire Secu- 
rity," and "Site Security." These programs are produced by 
the American Association for State and Local History. 

Additionally, the Regional Curator and the Curatorial Services Branch, 
Preservation Assistance Division, WASO, can provide assistance and 
further information for managing the museum collection. 



333 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



335 



Figure 1 

View of the downstairs bedroom (room 101) when the deProsse family 
occupied Lindenwald, probably in the 1930s. DeProsse Collection, 
MAVA Neg. 5110. Note the original sleigh bed (unlocated), shaving 
stand (MAVA 06), and chest of drawers (private collection). 



336 



& 






Figure 2 



Room 101 as furnished by 
Collection, MAVA Neg. 5110. 
been a Van Buren piece. 



the 
The 



deProsse 
wardrobe 



family, 1930s. DeProsse 
(MAVA 12) is said to have 



338 




i * *» t t mi%{ tm M0 , k im Mfo« 



■■ 



KWHWUmH 



* 1 '■"?. 



Figure 3 

Secretary (MAVA 05) and swivel chair (MAVA 83), said to have been Van 
Buren's, in room 104, the sitting room, in the 1930s. DeProsse 
Collection, MAVA Neg. 5110. The wallpaper and Brussels carpet 
(unlocated) are also believed to be from the Van Buren era. 






340 







• 


^B 








4MBmmnmmm| BAf 


* 

t 
• • 

• 

• 

• » 

• 

• • 

• 




• 
— « 









Figure 4 

The north wall of the sitting room (room 104) in the 1930s. DeProsse 
Collection, MAVA Neg. 5110. The fireboard (MAVA 85), plate warmer 
(271), and oyster gridiron (273), are believed to date from the Van 
Buren occupancy. 






342 



Figure 5 

Another view of the fireplace in room 104 during the deProsse period, 
probably taken in the 1930s. DeProsse Collection, MAVA Neg. 5110. 



344 



Figure 6 

Earliest known view of Lindenwald's hall, taken about the time the 
Birneys moved in, 1917. Note the Van Buren-associated chandelier 
(MAVA 22), sofa bed (03), card table (349), Brussels carpet (21), 
and the piano said to have belonged to Jennie Jerome (01). 



346 



Figure 7 

View of the hall accompanying 1929 article by Major Alexander Well 
in unidentified newspaper (MAVA Collection). This shows the scenic 
wallpaper, an easy chair (MAVA 13 or 60), two card tables (349 and 
one now in a private collection), besides the sofa bed, carpet, 
chandelier, and piano. 



348 



Figure 8 

The hall sometime in the 1930s as photographed by Rowles Studio (MAVA 
Neg. 5120). The two settees (MAVA 52 and unlocated) have a possible 
Van Buren association. The chandelier globes have been changed since 
1917 (see Figure 6). 



350 



Figure 9 

Northwest corner of the hall, probably in the late 1930s. DeProsse 
Collection, MAVA Neg. 5110. The sofa bed, card table, and carpet 
are the same ones pictured in Figures 6 and 7. 









352 



I 




*M **s 



K~m,*: 






''*&».-, 






~t 









Figure 10 



Drawing room (room 106) in the late 
and 60) from the set associated with 
MAVA Neg. 5110. 



1930s, with two chairs (MAVA 13 
Van Buren. DeProsse Collection, 



354 







», 



\* 




{ 



*m\ 



I LJUJ 






"1 — 



E 2 ■* — 




_^^^fl 


SB 




r * ^^^* 







Figure 11 

The ogee arch in room 106, looking toward the breakfast room doorway. 
1930s. The chairs and card table (MAVA 54-55 and 07) are part of the 
set believed to have been Van Buren's. DeProsse Collection, MAVA 
Neg. 5110. 



356 


































*•*.- -* 



tr 



*.-, 










% 






Figure 12 

A Rowles Studio photograph, 1930s, of the drawing room (106). Note 
the original pier mirror (MAVA 24), three chairs and sofa from Van 
Buren's Gothic parlor set, and a center table (26) and melodeon (348) 
attributed to Van Buren. Rowles Studio Collection, MAVA Neg. 5120. 



358 



Figure 13 

Members of the Birney/deProsse family relaxing in room 106 sometime 
in the 1930s. DeProsse Collection, MAVA Neg. 5110. The Gothic easy 
chair (MAVA 13 or 60), the settee (02), and card table (07), are all 
believed to be Van Buren pieces. 



360 



Figure 14 

East end of the drawing room, with the west end reflected in the 
original pier mirror. 1930s photograph, deProsse Collection, MAVA 
Neg. 5110. The carpet is no longer extant; the card table, melodeon, 
and chairs are in the MAVA collection. 



362 



1 r 













« 





Figure 15 

In this 1936 photograph by Melvin J. Weig, NPS, the Gothic parlor set 
is made in evidence, although the furniture arrangement differs from 
that in Figure 14. Weig Collection, MAVA Neg. 5160. 



364 



Figure 16 

The former library (room 111) was being used as a dining room in the 
1930s. Rowles Studio Collection, MAVA Neg. 5120. The small side- 
board (MAVA 42), klismos chair (262), and drop-leaf table (private 
collection) are said to have been Van Buren's. 



366 




ill 



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Figure 17 

Found on the Lindenwald grounds in 1976, this copper-lined bath tub 
(MAVA 82) is believed to be the one installed in room 114 during the 
Lindenwald renovation of 1849/50. MAVA Neg. 8232. 



368 



Figure 18 

The remains of Van Buren's kitchen range and oven, room 006, about 
1974. Fred Van Tassel 1 photograph, MAVA Neg. 5191. 



370 







...*' I 




Figure 19 

Dining table, accordion-action, 1800-1815, owned by Martin Van Buren, 
acquired c. 1864 by Aaron Vanderpoel , exhibited at Lindenwald 1982- 
1983, now in a private collection. Photograph courtesy Christie's 
New York. 



372 



Figure 20 

"The Fox Chace," an anti-Van Buren cartoon from the 1840 Harrison- 
Van Buren presidential contest. An 1846 visitor at Lindenwald men- 
tioned seeing a copy of this cartoon in the library at Lindenwald, 
Photograph courtesy Library of Congress. 



374 



Figure 21 

G.P.A. Healy's portrait of ex-President Van Buren, for which the 
subject sat at Lindenwald in 1858. Photograph courtesy The White 
House. 



376 



Figure 22 

Portrait of Angelica Singleton Van Buren, by Henry Inman, 1842, with 
Hiram Powers' bust of Martin Van Buren in the background. The wife 
of Abraham Van Buren, Angelica, acted as her widower father-in-law's 
hostess during his term as President and, later, at Lindenwald. 
Photograph courtesy The White House. 



378 



Figure 23 

Firebox and cleanout doors of the c. 1854 Boynton's Patent furnace, 
Lindenwald, room 001. Photograph by Fred Van Tassel 1, 1974. 



380 



Figure 24 

Access door of c. 1854 furnace, room 001, showing original inscrip- 
tion: "Hon. M. Van Buren/Kinderhook/N.Y. " Photographed by Fred Van 
Tassel 1, 1974. 



382 



Figure 25 

Lindenwald from the front, probably in the late 1890s. Note marble 
urn and two cast iron garden settees. MAVA Neg. 8171. 



384 






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Figure 26 

Front porch of Lindenwald, probably taken in the early 1890s (shrub- 
bery flanking porch is smaller than in Figure 25). The marble urn 
is extant but the two "ironwood" porch chairs have disappeared. MAVA 
Neg. 5190. 



386 



** 






m II m 



~ 









4 



65~ 



Figure 27 

One of the deProsse family seated, about 1930, on a cast iron garden 
settee (not extant) that may have dated from the Van Buren period. 
MAVA Neg. 5110. 



388 



APPENDIXES 

A. Will of Martin Van Ruren 

B. Martin Van Buren Exhibition Catalog, 1936 

C. Inventory of Martin Van Buren Furniture at Lindenwald, 1936 

D. Description of Lindenwald and Van Buren Furnishings, 1938 

E. Indenture and List of Law Books, George Caines— Martin Van 
Buren, 1814 

F. Inventory of Law Books in Van Buren Collection, Bar Association 
of the City of New York 

G. Children and Grandchildren of Martin Van Buren 

H. Chronology of Van Buren Family Members at Lindenwald 

I. Servants at Lindenwald with added reference to Patricia West's 
study, "The House Servants of Lindenwald" 

J. Partial List of Visitors to Lindenwald, 1841-62 

K. List of Owners of the Lindenwald Property 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 



423 



MANUSCRIPTS 

Boston Public Library. Boston, Mass. 

Martin Van Buren Papers in various collections 

Columbia County Courthouse, Hudson, N.Y. 
Will of MVB 

Columbia County Historical Society, Kinderhook, N.Y. 

Correspondence and accession records relating to Lindenwald 
and MVB 

Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Del. 
Joseph Downs Manuscript and Microfilm Collection 

The Hermitage, Hermitage, Tennessee 

Andrew Jackson account books; "Description of wedding of Rachel 
Jackson and Dr. John M. Lawrence" 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Martin Van Buren Papers in various collections (Buchanan , 
Cadwalader, Conarroe, Dreer, Gilpin, Lossing, Poinsett) 

Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal . 
Martin Van Buren Papers 

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 
Blair Family Papers 
Andrew J. Donelson Papers 
Andrew Jackson Papers 
William L. Marcy Papers 
William C. Rives Papers 
Angelica Singleton Van Buren Papers 
Martin Van Buren Papers 
Gideon Wei les Papers 
Levi Woodbury Papers 

Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, Kinderhook, N.Y. 
Van Buren Family Papers 

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass. 

Martin Van Buren Papers in various collections (Bancroft, 
Everett, Washburn, Warren) 

Morristown National Historical Park, Morristown, N.J. 
Martin Van Buren Papers 

National Archives 

Int. Pub. Bldgs. & Grnds. 



424 



New York Public Library, New York N.Y . 
James Barbour Papers 
Bryant-Godwin Collection 
Duyckinck Collection 
Emmet Collection 
Flagg Papers 

Gansevoort-Lansing Collection 
Harkness Collection 
Lee Kohns Memorial Collection 
Jackson-Lewis Papers 
Montague Collection 
T.H. Morrell Papers 
Myers Collection 
Presidents' Papers 
S.J. Tilden Papers 
Washington Irving Papers 

N ew York State Library, Albany, N.Y. 
Benjamin F. Butler Papers 
Martin Van Buren Papers 
Diary of Emilie Salles Vail, Vail Papers 

Pennsylvania State University, Media, Pa. 
Alexander Duer Harvey Collection 
Martin Van Buren Papers in miscellaneous collections 
Treadwell-Vanderpoel Papers 

Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, N.Y. 

Martin Van Buren Papers in various collections 

Princeton University Library, Princeton, N.J. 
Blair-Lee Papers 
Butler Family Papers 
Throop-Martin Papers 

P rivate Collections 

John Van Buren Diary 
Martin Van Buren Papers 

Sheldon Art Museum, Middlebury, Vt. 
Silas Wright Papers 

South Carol iniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C 
Singleton Family Papers 

University of North Caro lina, Southern Historical Collection, Chape l 

Hill, N.C. 

Charles L. Chandler Papers 



425 



University of Virginia Library. Richmond, Va 
Gooch Family Papers 

W i sconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wis. 
Draper Correspondence 



BOOKS (Martin Van Buren; Lindenwald) 

Bassett, John S. Correspondence of Andrew Jackson (Washington, D.C.: 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1927) 

Bassett, John S. T he Life of Andrew Jackson (Garden City, N.Y.: 
Doubleday, Page, 1911; Reprint 1967) 

Cole, Donald B. Mar tin Van Buren and the American Political System 
(Princeton, N.JTi Princeton University Press, 1984) 

Collier, Edward A. A History of Old Kinderhook (New York: G.P. 
Putnam's Sons, 1914) 

Collins, Herbert R. and David B. Weaver. Wills of the U.S. Presidents 
(New York: Communication Channels, Inc., 1976) 

Cowdrey, Bartlett. American Academy of Fine Arts and American Art- 
Un ion: Exhibition Record (New York: The New-York Historical 
Society, 1953) 

Eberlein, Harold Donalson. The Manors and Historic Homes of the 
Hudson Valley (Philadelphia^ J.B. Lippincott Co., 1924) 

Ellis, Franklin. History of Columbia County, New York (Philadelphia: 
Everts and Ensign, 1878. Reprint, Old Chatham, N.Y.: Sachem 
Press, 1974) 

Fitzpatrick, John C, ed. The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren . 
Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the 
Year 1918. 2 vols (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing 
Office, 1920. Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1973) 

Frisbee, Priscilla B. Friends of the Family, Butler-Van Buren 
(Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Stuyvesant Press, 1982) 

(Hamilton, James A.) R eminiscences of James A. Hamilton, or Men and 
E vents at Home and Abroad During Three Quarters of a Century 
(New York: Charles Scribner and Co., 1869) 

Jenkins, John S. L ives of the Governors of the State of New York 
(Auburn, N.Y.: Derby Miller, 1851) 



426 



Jones, Cranston. Home s of the American Presidents (New York: 
Bonanza Books, 1962) 

Lincoln, Robert W. L ives of the Presid e nts of the United States 
(Brattleboro, VtTi G.H. Salisbury, 1850) 

Lossing, Benson J. Lives of the Presidents (Philadelphia: H. Phelps 
and Co., 1847) 

. T he Hudson (Troy, N.Y.: H. Nims, 1866) 



Lynch, Denis Til den. A n Epoch and a Man: Martin Van Buren and His 
Ti mes. 2 vols (New York: Horace Liveright, Inc., 1929. 
Reprint, Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1971) 

Mackenzie, William L. The Life and Times of Martin Van Buren 
(Boston: Cooke and Co. , 1846. Reprint, Ann Arbor: 
University Microfilms International, 1981) 

Maury, Sarah M. The Statesmen of America in 1846 (Philadelphia: 
Cary & Hart, 1847) 

Miller, Peyton F. A Group of Great Lawyers of Columbia County, N.Y. 
(The Devinne Press, 1904) 

Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. Burke's Presidential Families of 
the United States (London: Burke's Peerage Ltd., 2d ed. 1981) 

Niven, John C. M artin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American 
Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983) 

Peckham, Harriet C. Waite Van Buren. Hi story of Cornelius Maessen 
Van Buren . (New York: Tobias A. Wright, 1913) 

Rayback, Joseph G. Martin Van Buren (New York: Eastern Acorn Press, 
1982) 

Tucker, R. Whitney. The Descendants of the Presidents (Charlotte, 
N.C.: Delmar Printing Co., 1975) 

Van Buren, Martin. Inquiry into the Origins and Course of Political 
Parties in the United States (New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1867. 
Reprint, Ann Arbor, Mi.: University Microfilms Internationsl , 
1981) 

West, Elizabeth H. Calendar of the Papers of Martin Van Buren 
(Washington, D.C7* Government Printing Office, 1910) 



427 



BOOKS (Furnishings References) 

Beecher, Catharine, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. The American Woman's 
Home (New York: J.B. Ford & Co., 1869) 

Bel den, Louise Conway. T he Festive Tradition, Table Decoration and 
Desse r ts in America, 1650-1900 (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. , 
1983T 

Comstock, Helen. American Furniture (Exton, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing 
Ltd., 1962) 

Downing, Andrew Jackson. The Architecture of Country Houses (New 
York: D. Appleton & Co., 1850. Reissued New York: Dover 
Publications Inc., 1969) 

Fairbanks, Jonathan L., and Elizabeth Bidwell Bates. American Furniture 
1620 to the Present (New York: Richard Marek Publishers, 198TT" 

Fitzgerald, Oscar. Three Centuries of American Furniture (Englewood 
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1982) 

Lasdun, Susan. Vi ctorians at Home (New York: The Viking Press, 1981) 

Loudon, J.C. An Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture 
and Furniture (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1842) 

Lynne, Catherine. W allpaper in America (New York: W.W. Norton & 
Co., Inc., 1980) 

Mayhew, Edgar de N., and Minor Myers, Jr. A Documentary History of 
American Interiors from the Colonial Era to 1915 (New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980) 

Montgomery, Florence M. Textiles in America, 1650-1870 (New York: 
W.W. Norton & Co., 1984) 

Parkes, Frances Byerly. Domestic Duties (New York: J. & J. Harper, 
1828. First American edition from third London edition) 

Peterson, Harold L. A merican Interiors From Colonial Times to the 
Late Victorians (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971) 

Praz, Mario. An Illustrated History of Interior Decoration from 

Pompeii to Art Nouveau (New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 1982) 

Roberts, Robert. The House Servant's Directory (Boston: Munroe and 

Francis, 1827. Reissued Waltham, Mass.: Gore Place Society, 1977) 

Scherer, John L. New York Furniture at the New York State Museum 
(Alexandria, Va.: Highland House Publishers, Inc., 1984) 



428 



Seale, William. Recreat ing the Historic House Interior (Nashville: 
American Association for State and Local History, 1979) 

Thornton, Peter. Auth entic Decor, The Domestic Interior 1620-1920 
(New York: Viking,~1984) 

Vaux, Calvert. Villas and Cottages (New York: Harper & Bros., 1864. 
Reissued New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1970) 

Von Rosenstiel, Helene. American Rugs and Carpets (New York: William 
Morrow & Co., Inc., 1978) 

Webster, Thomas, and Frances B. Parkes. Encyclopedia of Domestic 
Economy (New York: Harper, 1845) 

Wharton, Edith, and Ogden Codman, Jr. The Decoration of Houses (New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976") 



ARTICLES AND PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

"Bancroft-Van Buren Correspondence." Massachusetts Historical Society 
Proceedings , Vol. 42 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society) 

"Birney vs. Birney," Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division 
July 6, 1928 (printed 1932) 

Christie's New York, "American Furniture . . .," January 21, 1984, 
Lot 334 

"Martin Van Buren, Exhibition Catalog" (Albany, N.Y.: The National 
Savings Bank, 1936) 

"Furniture of the President's House." Washington, D.C.: House of 
Representatives, April 1, 1842. 

Hardenbrook, Louise. "Martin Van Buren, Country Gentleman," The 
B ulletin . No. 52, April, 1941 (Kinderhook, N.Y.: Columbia 
County Historical Society) 

[Hoes, Ernest P.] "Address of Historian." Th e Columbia Republican , 
February 22, 1906 

Hoes, Pierre Van Buren. "Van Buren 's Lindenwald. " New York Times 
Saturday Review of Books and Art , July 23 and August 6, 1898 

[Lincoln, Levi] "Speech of Mr. Lincoln." The Extra Globe , vol. 6, 
no. 8. (Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, August 5, 1840) 

[Ogle, Charles] "Speech of Mr. Ogle of Pennsylvania on the Regal 
Splendor of the President's Palace" (Boston: Weeks, Jordon, 
and Co., 1840) 



429 



INTERVIEWS 

Clementine B. DeProsse, interviewed by Carol E. Kohan and Sarah M. 
Olson, May 5, 1981 (MAVA collection) 



TECHNICAL REPORTS AND STUDIES 

Butler, Joseph T. "Report on the Furnishings Collection for Linden- 
wald," prepared for Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, 
April 18, 1980 (MAVA files) 

Howell, William W. Historic Structure Report, Lindenwald, Martin 
V an Buren National Historic Site: Architectural Data Section 
"{Denver: National Park Service, 1985) 

Piatt, John D.R. H istoric Resource Study, Lindenwald, Martin Van 

Buren National Historic Si te (Denver: National Park Service, 1982) 

Poll, Lorraine M. "Report on the information found in the Papers of 
Martin Van Buren, Collection at the Ogontz Campus of Pennsylvania 
State University, regarding Lindenwald through the years 1839- 
1864." National Park Service, 1978 (MAVA files) 

Weig, Melvin J. "Lindenwald, The President Martin Van Buren Homestead, 
near Kinderhook, New York." (National Park Service, 1936) 



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